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APA Citations

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. Ref. BF 76.7 .P83 2020

For supplemental material, please visit www.apastyle.org or view the library book.

Commonly Cited Sources in APA

 
  • Except for personal communications, each source cited in paper must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the paper.
  • Page numbers are only required in citations for direct quotes.

Book

Choose a book type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Book with One Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Bigelow, B. (2006). The line between us: Teaching about the border and Mexican immigration. Rethinking Schools.

Note: For all types of books if there is a DOI include it at the end of the reference: https: doi.org/xxxx

(Bigelow, 2006)

Or

Bigelow (2006) discusses the Mexican immigrant experience ...


Book with Two Authors

Note: Rules for multiple authors apply to all references in your list, regardless of the format of work (e. g. book, journal or magazine article, audio/video, etc.)

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Mock, D. W., & Parker, G. A. (1997). The evolution of sibling rivalry. Oxford University Press.

(Mock & Parker, 1997)

Or

Mock and Parker (1997) discuss the origins of family structure ...


Book with Three to Twenty Authors

Note: Rules for multiple authors apply to all references in your list, regardless of the format of work (e. g. book, journal or magazine article, audio/video, etc.)

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A ., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.,  & Author, D. D. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Koenig, H, Pearce, M., Ames, D., & Nash, W. P. (2020). Religion and recovery from PTSD. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

 

(Koenig et al., 2020)

Or

Koenig et al. (2020) discuss the origins of family structure ...


Book with Twenty-one or more Authors

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A ., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K ., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., ... Author, W. W. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

 

(Last name et al., 2019)

Or:

Last name et al. (2019)

 

Note: Include the first 19 names, an ellipsis, and then the final name.   


Book with Organization as Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Name of Organization. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

American Psychiatric Association. (1998). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with panic disorder.

Note: When the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher.

For the first in-text citation use:

(American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1998)

Or:

American Psychiatric Association (APA, 1998)

For subsequent citations use:

(APA, 1998)

Or:

APA (1998) 

Note: For universities as authors do not abbreviate the name.


Book Chapter

APA Manual 8.13, 10.2

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of Chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. chapter page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Kozminski, A. K. (1994). High-speed management and global competition. In S. S. King & D. P. Cushman (Eds.), High-speed management and organizational communications in the 1990s: A reader (pp. 41-67). State University of New York Press.

Note: Page is abbreviated, but Chapter is not abbreviated and it is capitalized.

(Kozminski, 1994)

Or:

(Kozminski, 1994, p. 50)


Anthology/Edited Book

APA Manual 10.02

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Madan, T. N. (Ed.). (1991). Religion in India. Oxford University Press.

Note: For more than one editor, use (Eds.)

(Madan, 1991)

Or:

Madan (1991)

Collection of Essays

APA Manual 10.02 

Works Cited Format:

In-text Citation:

The Entire Collection:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Montaigne, M. D. (1993). The complete essays (M. A. Screech, Ed. and Trans.). Penguin Books.

OR

A Specific Essay:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of work (A. A. Translator, Trans.). In A. A. Author/Editor & B. B. Author/Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Montaigne, M. D. (1993). On the cannibals (M. A. Screech, Trans.). In M. A. Screech (Ed.), The complete essays (pp. 228-241). Penguin Books.

(Montaigne, 1993)

OR

(Montaigne 1993, p. 230)

Poetry

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of poem. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Frost, R. (1964). The road not taken. Complete poems of Robert Frost (p. 131). W. W. Norton.

OR

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of poem. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Frost, R. (1988). The road not taken. In R. Ellmann & R. O'Clair (Eds.), The Norton anthology of modern poetry (pp. 247-48). W. W. Norton.

(Frost, 1964, p. 131)

Play

APA Manual 10.2 (37), 8.13, and 8.28

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Stand-Alone Play

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Shepard, S. (1981). True west. Nelson Doubleday.

OR

Play Within an Anthology

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of play. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Shakespeare, W. (2008). King Lear (Stephen Greenblatt, Ed.). The Norton Shakespeare (pp. 2325-2567). W. W. Norton.

(Shepard, 2008, p. 63)

OR

(Shakespeare, 2008, pp. 2352-2353)


No Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of book (edition number ed.). (Year of Publication). Name of Publisher.

The American heritage dictionary of the English language (4th ed.). (2000). Houghton Mifflin.

Note: Within the reference list, alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title (American in this case).

For the in-text citation, use a few words of the title in place of the author's name.

(American Heritage Dictionary, 2000)

Or:

American Heritage Dictionary (2000)


Edition Other than First

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book (edition number ed.). Name of Publisher.

Bukatko, D. & Daehler, M. W. (2004). Child development: A thematic approach (5th ed.). Houghton Mifflin.

(Bukatko & Daehler, 2004)

Or:

Bukatko and Daehler (2004)


Translated Work

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication for English Translation). Title of book (Name of Translator, Trans.). Name of Publisher. (Original work published [Date of Original Publication])

Freud, S. (1999). The interpretation of dreams (J. Crick, Trans.). Oxford. (Original work published 1899)

(Freud, 1899/1999)

Or:

Freud (1899/1999)

Multivolume Work (Citing Only One Volume)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book (Vol. X). Name of Publisher.

Cook, B.W. (1999). Eleanor Roosevelt (Vol. 12). Viking.

(Cook, 1999)

Or:

Cook (1999)


Multivolume Work (Citing All the Volumes)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year(s) of Publication). Title of book (Vols. X-X). Name of Publisher.

Cook, B.W. (1992-1999). Eleanor Roosevelt (Vols. 1-12). Viking.

(Cook, 1992-1999)

Or:

Cook (1992-1999)


Encyclopedia Entry

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of encyclopedia article. In Title of encyclopedia (Vol. Volume Number, pp. page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Mayes, A. R. & Hunkin, M. M. (2003). Amnesia. In Encyclopedia of cognitive science (Vol. 1, pp. 90-97). Nature Publishing Group.

(Mayes & Hunkin, 2003)

Or:

Mayes and Hunkin (2003)

 

Ebook

Choose the Ebook type

More in-text Citation Information


Ebook (Chapter)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. chapter page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Dray, A. (1999). Vanilloids as analgesics. In J. Sawynok & A. Cowan (Eds.), Novel aspects of pain management: Opioids and beyond (pp. 117-134).Wiley-Liss.

Note: A URL should only be included at the end if it is a nondatabase URL or include the DOI at the end if you have it: https://doi.org/xxxx     

See APA manual 10.3 for more information.

(Dray, 1999)

Or:

Dray (1999)


Ebook (Entire Book)

Reference List Format: In-text 
Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Name of Publisher.

Martin, R. (2001). Beethoven's hair: An extraordinary historical odyssey and a scientific mystery solved. Broadway Books.

Note: A URL should only be included at the end if it is a nondatabase URL or include the DOI at the end if you have it: https://doi.org/xxxx     

See APA manual 10.3 for more information.

(Martin, 2001)

Or:

Martin (2001)

 

Journal Article

Choose the Journal type

More in-text Citation Information


Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.


Online Journal Article

In June 2007, the APA made changes to how electronic sources were documented. If an article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), use the DOI in place of a URL or electronic database name. The retrieval date is no longer needed. Since a DOI string can be very long, copy and paste it into your paper to ensure accuracy. Not sure what a DOI is or how to find it?

Article with a DOI* Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue number), print page numbers. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Cowan, R. L. (2012). It’s complicated: Defining workplace bullying from the human resource professional’s perspective. Management Communication Quarterly26(3), 377-403. doi:10.1177/0893318912439474

(Cowan, 2012)

Or:

Cowan (2012)


APA Manual 10.1 (3)

Article without a DOI* Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue number), print page numbers. URL

Salama, A. M. (2008). A theory for integrating knowledge in architectural design education. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 2(1), 100-128. http://archnet.org/gws/IJAR/8821/files_8181/2.1.07%20-a.%20salama- pp100-128.pdf

Note on Article URL:

  • Accessible for free: give the exact URL, as in the example above.
  • From an electronic database: If no DOI then do not include the URL, instead treat as a print journal.

(Salama, 2008)

Or:

Salama (2008)

 


 Print Journal Article from Journal Paginated by Volume*

Journals paginated by volume use continuous pagination from issue to issue. For example issue one starts with page one and goes to page 252. Issue two starts with page 253 and goes to page 506. For journals paginated by volume, do not include the issue number in the reference list entry.

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume, print page numbers.

Zhao, Z. (2006). Income inequality, unequal health care access, and mortality in China. Population and Development Review, 32, 401-446.
 

(Zhao, 2006)

Or:

Zhao (2006)

*If you see a DOI printed on the article, include it at the end of your citation in this format. If you do not see a DOI, search for the article at CrossRef.org for the DOI. If you are unable to find a DOI, use the above format.


 Print Journal Article from Journal Paginated by Issue*

Journals paginated by issue start with page one for every issue. For these journals, include the issue number in the reference list entry.

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue number), print page numbers.

Greenberg, A. (2001). Race, religiosity, and the women's vote. Women & Politics, 22(3), 59-82.

(Greenberg, 2001)

Or:

Greenberg (2001)

*If you see a DOI printed on the article, include it at the end of your citation in this format. If you do not see a DOI, search for the article at CrossRef.org for the DOI. If you are unable to find a DOI, use the above format.


Review

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author of the Review. (Date of Publication). Title of article [Review of Title of book being reviewed,  by A.A. Author]. Journal Title, volume, page numbers.

Ellis, N. (2006). London chiming [Review of the book Postcolonial London: Rewriting the metropolis, by J. McLeod]. Postcolonial Studies, 9, 337-342.

Note: If citing a review of another medium, such as a motion picture, use Review of motion picture in brackets. Example: [Review of the motion picture To catch a thief]

(Ellis, 2006)

Or:

Ellis (2006)

 

Journal Article with Twenty-one or More Authors

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A ., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K ., Author, L. L., Author, M. M ., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., ... Author, W. W. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue number), pages. Name of Publisher. 

Koiwai, K., Tsukimoto, J., Higashi. T, Mafune, F., Miyajima, K., Nakane, T., Matsugaki, N., Kato, R., Sirigu, S., Jakobi, A., Wilmanns, M., Sugahara, M., Tanaka, T., Tono, K., Joti, Y., Yabashi, M., Osamu, N., Mizohata, E., Nakatsu, T., ...Yumoto, F. (2019). Improvement of production and isolation of human neuraminidase-1 in cellulo crystals. ACS Applied Bio Materials 2(11), 4941-4952. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.9b00686

 

(Koiwai et al., 2019)

Or:

Koiwai et al. (2019)

 

Note: Include the first 19 names, an ellipsis, and then the final name.   

Magazine Article

Choose the Magazine type

More in-text Citation Information


Magazine Article from Library Database

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume (issue if available), page numbers.

Stengel, R. (2012, April 30). A world of possibilities. Time, 179(17), 1. 

Note: Include DOI at the end if available.

(Stengel, 2012)

Or:

Stengel (2012)


Magazine Article from Online Website

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume(issue), page numbers. URL 

Barclay, A. (2013, March). Using social media to enhance public education on water usage. Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine, 26(2), 13. http://www.esemag.com

 

(Barclay, 2013)

Or:

Barclay (2013)


Print Magazine Article

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume, page numbers.

Ravilious, K. (2006, November/December). Scots on the rocks: Mountaineering archaeologists reach new heights of discovery. Archaeology, 27, 16-21.  

(Ravilious, 2006)

Or:

Ravilious (2006)

 

Newspaper Article

Choose the Newspaper type

More in-text Citation Information


Newspaper Article from Library Database

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page number(s).

Harmon, A. (2006, December 10). DNA gatherers hit a snag: The tribes don't trust them. New York Times, 1.1. 

Note on DOI: At this time newspaper articles rarely have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assigned to them. If your newspaper article does have a DOI at it to the end of the reference. 

Not sure what a DOI is or how to find it?

(Harmon, 2006)

Or:

Harmon (2006)


Article from Newspaper Website

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title. URL

Searing, L. (2020, January 6). The big number: 24% of young adults may have prediabetes in U.S., study shows. The Washington Post.  https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/the-big-number-24-percent-of-young-adults-may-have-prediabetes-in-us-study-shows/2020/01/03/f0559ee2-2d74-11ea-9b60-817cc18cf173_story.html

(Searing, 2020)

Or:

Searing (2020)


Print Newspaper Article

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page number(s).

Donnelly, J. (2006, November 9). SARS authority picked to lead health group. Boston Globe, A14.

(Donnelly, 2006)

Or:

Donnelly (2006)


Newspaper Article with Unknown Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of article. (Full Date of Publication). Newspaper Title, page number(s).

Number of out-of-wedlock births a record. (2006, November 26). Hartford Courant, A7.

Notes:

("Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births", 2006)

Note: For the in-text citation, use a few words of the title in place of the author's name. Include double quotation marks around the title of the article.


Letter to the Editor

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article [Letter to the editor]. Newspaper Title, page number.

Arsham, J. (2006, November 9). At last she has reason to wave a flag [Letter to the editor]. Boston Globe, A16.

(Arsham, 2006)

Or:

Arsham (2006)

 

Website, Blog, or Social Media

Choose the Source type

More in-text Citation Information


For additional information see APA Style Blog.

Note: When citing an entire website or page, and not any document in particular on that website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in the text (no reference list entry is needed), as follows:

KidsPsych is a wonderful interactive website for children (http://www.kidspsych.org)

Website

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting/Revision). Title of website. URL

The White House, United States Government. (2006). Comprehensive immigration reform. http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/immigration/

Notes:

  • The author for a website may be a person's name, or a company or institution.
  • When the Date of Posting/Revision is not available, use (n.d.).

(The White House, United States Government, 2006)

Or:

The White House (2006)


Website, No Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of website. (Date of Posting/Revision). URL

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

Note: When the Date of Posting/Revision is not available, use (n.d.).

(New Child Vaccine, 2001)

Blog Posting

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting). Title of blog post. Website. URL

Simon, N. (2010, February 9). How different types of museums approach participation. Museum 2.0. https://museumtwo.blogspot.com/2010/02/how-different-types-of-museums-approach.html  

(Simon, 2010)


Comment on an Article or Post

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting). Comment title or up to first twenty words of comment. [Comment on the article "Title of article or blog post"]. Website. URL

hds (2010, February 9). Thank you everyone for inspiring discussion. [Comment on the blog post "How different types of museums approach participation"}. Museum 2.0. https://museumtwo.blogspot.com/2010/02/how-different-types-of-museums-approach.html

Note: If the author of the comment has used a screen name, then use the screen name in your reference.

(Last name or username, year)

 

 

(hds, 2010)


Social Media

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. [Social media identity]. (Year, Day of Posting). Content of post up to first 20 words [Type of Media]. Site name. URL

Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

(Last name, year)

 

(Obama, 2019)  

 

Facebook

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A.  (Year, Day of Posting). Content of post up to first 20 words. [Photo/Status Update/Video]. Facebook. URL 

American Psychological Association. (2019, December 31). Are you setting some goals to ring in the new year? [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/pg/AmericanPsychologicalAssociation/posts/

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

(Last name, year)

(American Psychological Association, 2019)  

See APA Style Blog for other types of social media.

Tweet

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. [@username]. (Year, Day of Posting). Content of post up to first 20 words [Tweet]. Twitter. URL 

The New York Times [@nytimes]. (2020, January 7). Throughout the U.S., marine labs that study the environment are being threatened by climate change [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/nytimes/status/1214685673082511360

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

(Last name, year)

 

(The New York Times, 2020)  

See APA Style Blog for other types of social media.

Instagram

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. [@username]. (Year, Day of Posting). Content of post up to first 20 words. [Photograph/Video]. Instagram. URL 

Obama, M. [@michelleobama]. (2019, December 20). Long An Province, Vietnam. [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B6TD-pnADuQ/

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

(Last name, year)

 

(Obama, 2019)  

See APA Style Blog for other types of social media.

E-mail or Personal Communication

Choose the source type

More in-text Citation Information


​E-mail

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Note: E-mails (like other personal communication) are not included in the reference list; however, cite the e-mail in the text and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a specific date.

(C.A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)

Or:

As C.A. Roberts said in his e-mail ... (personal communication, December 6, 2006)


Personal Communication

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Note: Personal communication (such as letters, memos, e-mails, personal interviews and telephone conversations) are not included in the reference list. Cite the personal communication in the text, and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a date as specific as possible.

(C.A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)

Or:

As C.A. Roberts wrote in a letter... (personal communication, December 6, 2006)


Lecture Notes and PowerPoint Slides

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. (Year, Date). [Lecture notes on...]. Location. URL (if applicable)

Author, A. (Year, Date). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Platform. URL (if applicable)

(Author, year)

(Author, year)


Speech

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A., (Year, Date). Title [Speech]. Location. URL (if applicable)

Yousafzai, M. (2013, July 12). Address on Education to the United Nations [Speech]. The United Nations, New York, NY, United States.

(Author, Year).

(Yousafzai, 2013)

 

Audio/Video

Choose the source type

 

More in-text Citation Information

Note: The individual in the "author" location will vary depending on the type of media. Consult the charts on pp. 341-342 of the APA 7 Publication Manual along with the examples in section 10.12.


Streaming Video

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Uploader. (Date of Posting). Title of Video [Video].  URL

Zmunk. (2007, June 20). Fairfield University students at NASA [Video]. http://youtube.com/watch?v=tgq1FYuWd1c

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is listed as the author for retrievability purposes even if the content was created by someone else. The contributions of others who appear in the video may be included in the text narrative if desired.

(Zmunk, 2007)


Film or Video

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Originator or Primary Contributor (Function of Originator or Primary Contributor). (Copyright date). Title of film [Film]. Name of Movie Studio.

Hitchcock, A. (Director/Producer). (1954). Rear window [Film].  Paramount Pictures.

Note: For a film or video, use the director as the author. For a list of which individual to use as the author for other forms of media, consult the charts on pp. 341-342 of the APA 7 Publication Manual along with the examples in section 10.12.

(Hitchcock, 1954)

Or:

Hitchcock (1954)


Sound Recording (Individual Tracks and Albums)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Writer, A. A. (Copyright Date). Title of song [Song recorded by Name of Recording Artist if different from writer]. On Album title [Recording  medium]. Location: Recording Company. (Recording date if different from copyright date).

Dylan, B. (1993). All along the watchtower [Song recorded by J. Hendrix]. On Electric ladyland [Song]. MCA. (1968).

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

(Dylan, 1993)

(Bowie, 2016)

 

 

Television Episode

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Scriptwriter (Writer), & Name of Director (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number if available) [TV series episode]. In Name of Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of television series. Studio Name.

Weiner, H. (Writer & Director). (1999). Land of plenty, land of want [TV series episode]. In H. Weiner & M. Weiner (Executive Producers) Journey to planet Earth. Screenscope.

(Weiner, 1999)

Or:

Weiner (1999)


Television Series

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Producer of Television Series (Producer). (Year(s)). Title of television series. [TV series]. Studio Name.

Weiner, M. (Producer) and Weiner, H. (Producer). (1999). Journey to planet Earth. [TV series]. Screenscope.

(M. Weiner & H. Weiner, 1999)

Or:

M. Weiner & H. Weiner (1999)

Image or Advertisement

Choose the source type

More in-text Citation Information


Artwork and Online Images

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author (Artist), A. A. (Year). Title of work [Format/Medium]. Location, City, Country. URL

El Greco. (1599-1600). View of Toledo [Painting]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY. https://www.metmuseum.org/en/art/collection/search/436575

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of image or figure [Format/Medium]. Location. URL

Newman, M. E. J. (2008). Maps of the 2008 US presidential election [Map]. University of Michigan. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/

Note: If no author is available use the following format:

  • Title of image or figure [Type of image]. (Date of Posting/Revision). Location. URL

Note: If no date is available, use (n.d.).

(El Greco, 1599-1600)

 

 

 

(Newman, 2008)


Advertisement

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Advertisement title. (Date of Posting). [Advertisement type]. URL

Tab cola. Be a mindsticker. (1960). [Television advertisement]. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/z2sqi_1960s-tab-commercial-be- a-mindstick_ads

(Tab cola, 1960)
 

Data Set

Data Set

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A.A. (Year). Title of data set (Numerical identifier; version number) [Data set]. Publisher name. URL

O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36966.v1

Note: The bracketed description is flexible (e.g., “[Data set],” “[Data set and code book]”)

Note: If you are citing existing data or statistics, cite the publication in which the data were published (e.g., a journal article, report, or webpage) rather than the data set itself.

(O'Donohue, 2017)

 

 

 

 

Secondary Sources

APA advises to "use secondary sources sparingly, for instance, when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English."

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

List the secondary source in the reference list:

Zelizer, B. (1998). Remembering to forget : Holocaust memory through the camera's eye. University of Chicago Press.

Name the original work in your text and but cite the secondary source:

In Susan Sontag's (1977) book On Photography ... (as cited in Zelizer, 1998, 11)

 

In-Text Citation Examples

Choose the source type


One Author

The below formats are used for the authors of both books and articles:

In-text Citation Example:

In a recent book about border patrols ... (Bigelow, 2006).

Or

Bigelow (2006) discusses the Mexican immigrant experience.


Two Authors

The below formats are used for the authors of both books and articles. Always cite both names every time you cite the work:

In-text Citation Example:

(Mock & Parker, 1997)

Or

Mock and Parker (1997) discuss the origins of family structure ...


Three or more Authors

The below formats are used for the authors of both books and articles:

In-text Citation Examples:

For the first in-text citation, cite all of the authors. (Garner et al., 1990)

Or:

Garner et al. (1990) discuss the origins of ...


 


No Author

The below format is used for the authors of both books and articles:

For the in-text citation, use a few words of the title in place of the author's name. Italicize a book title and use double quotation marks around the title of an article or book chapter.

In-text Citation Examples:

(American Heritage Dictionary, 2000)

Or:

American Heritage Dictionary (2000)

Or:

("Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births," 2006)


No Date

The below format is used for the authors of both books and articles:

Use n.d. in the place of the date.

In-text Citation Example:

(Roberts, n.d.)


Personal Communication

In addition to the author's last name, include the author's initials. Provide a date that is as specific as possible. 

In-text Citation Example:

(C. A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)

Or:

C. A. Roberts (personal communication, December 6, 2006)


Multiple Works in the Same Parenthesis

When citing two or more works by different authors within the same parenthesis, list the authors alphabetically and separate each citation with a semicolon.

In-text Citation Example:

(Landau, 1989; Leja, 1993; Varnedoe, 1999)


Specific Part of a Print Source (Including Exact Quotes)

In-text citation examples:

(Walker, 1991, Figure 2)

(Zelizer, 2003, Chapter 1)

"No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue" (Zelizer, 2003, 3).

Note: When quoting from a source, always give page numbers.


Specific Part of an Electronic Source (Including Exact Quotes)

If an electronic source does not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number if given.

In-text Citation Examples:

(Smith, para. 2)

If there are no page or paragraph numbers available, cite the section heading and count the paragraph number in which the citation falls.

In-text Citation Example:

"A key aspect of global Buddhism has been the exponential increase in the movement of Buddhism in the last five decades of the twentieth century, from Asia to Western nations" (Henry, 2006, Global Buddhism section, para. 2).


The Bible and Other Classical Works

An entry in the reference list is not required for the Bible and other major classical works, such as Greek and Roman works (e.g. The Iliad). For the first in-text citation, identify the version of text you used.

In-text Citation Example:

Instead of page numbers, use the classical work's numbering system (books, chapters, verses, lines, cantos).

John 3:16 (King James Version)

Or:

(John 3:16 King James Version)

For subsequent in-text citations, you no longer need to identify the version used.

(John 3:16)


Translated Work

Include the original publication date and the date of the translation.

In-text Citation Example:

(Freud, 1899/1999)

For some ancient works, the original publication date is not applicable. Instead use the translation year.

(Plato, trans. 2004)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI, and how do I find it? A DOI is an alpha-numeric code that provides a persistent link to an article location on the Internet. With an HTML full-text article, the DOI is often found in the online citation of the article. With a PDF article, the DOI is often found on the beginning page of the article. Not all articles have a DOI. 

Online Journal Article | Newspaper Article from Library Database

Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper: Online Resources
 
Print Resources
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. (Ref. BF 76.7.P83 2020)
  • Concise Rules of APA Style (Ref. BF 76.7.C66 2020)
 
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