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Citation Guides

AMA

Table of Contents

AMA Citations

AMA Manual of Style, 11th ed. Ref. R119.A533 2020 and online

For supplemental material, please visit  AMAmanualofstyle.com or view the library book.

Commonly Cited Sources in AMA

 
  • Each source cited in paper must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the paper. Superscript numbers are used to note in-text citations and all references will be listed at the end of the paper in numbered order. 
  •  
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In-Text Citations

 In-Text Citation Examples

AMA Style uses superscript numbers for in-text citations. The superscript comes after quotations, periods, and commas. The superscript goes immediate following the information including mid-sentence.  At the end of the paper list References with their number in the order they appear in the paper. 

Examples of in-text citations: 

Advanced nursing practitioners must have measurable roles of increased level of competencies.1

Coordinating, planning, and education2 are key components to the concept.

Using the same source more than once:

If you use the same source more than once it will use the same number. 

Using direct quotes:

If you use a direct quote include page numbers.

Schober states "a recommendation for scope of practice and suggestions to guide development of standards for professional regulation, education, and competencies subsequently followed."2(p.3)

Or 

According to Schober "a recommendation for scope of practice and suggestions to guide development of standards for professional regulation, education, and competencies subsequently followed"2(p.3) and should be considered going forward. 

Citing multiple sources in one sentence:

If the sources are consecutive use a hyphen.

Patient-centered team care and measurement based treatment should be included.4-5

If the sources are not consecutive use commas.

Issues can include healthcare diversity and education while also considering policy and and economics.2,7

When mentioning in text, if there are more than 2 authors only use the first author then use et al. for the rest:

Smith et al. reported their results.1  

 


Personal Communication

Personal communications should not be in the reference list. 

When a personal communication is cited in-text include the date and how it was documented.

In-text Citation Example:

The findings were inconclusive according to Smith (email, March 12, 2020).

Or:

In March 2020 J.H. Smith noted in a written communication that...

For more examples see AMA Manual 3.13.10

Book

Choose a book type. Minimums for citations are listed in AMA Manual 3.4.

 

More in-text Citation Information


Book with One to Six Authors

AMA Manual 3.7, 3.12.2

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.

Cozolino, LJ. The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social Brain. W.W. Norton; 2017. 

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.

Andersen K, Kuhn K, Wong, EC, Wong ES. What the Health: The Startling Truth Behind the Foods We Eat. BenBella Books; 2018.

 

 

 


Book with Seven or More Authors

Note: Rules for multiple authors apply to all references in your list, regardless of the format of work (e. g. book, journal or magazine article, audio/video, etc.)

AMA Manual 3.7, 3.12.2

Reference List Format:  

When there are 7 or more authors list the first 3 then et al. 

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.

Newbigging K, Ridley J, McKeown M, et al. Independent Mental Health Advocacy: The Right to be Heard: Context, Values and Good Practice. Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2015.

 


Book with Organization as Author

AMA Manual 3.7.2, 3.12.2

Reference List Format:  

Name of Organization. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.

World Health Organization. WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations. World Health Organization; 2016.

 


Book Chapter

AMA Manual 3.12.4

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB eds. Title of Book. Publisher; Year: pages. 

Berger AM. Improving supportive care for cancer patients and their families. In: LoBiondo-Wood G, Haber J eds. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier; 2014: 2-4.

 


Edited Book with One to Six Editors

AMA Manual 3.12.2, 3.12.5 

Reference List Format:  

Editor  AA, ed. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.

Kuman D, ed. Genomic Medicine: Principles and Practice. Oxford University Press; 2015. 

Note: For more than one editor, use eds.

Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of book. Publisher; Year.

DiMartini AF, Ackerman K, eds. Psychosomatic Medicine. Oxford University Press; 2015.

 

 

Edited Book with Seven or More Editors

AMA Manual 3.12.2, 3.12.5

Reference List Format

 

When there are 7 or more editors list the first 3 then et al. 

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al., eds. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.

Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al., eds. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. Saunders; 2016.

.

 

Classical Works 

AMA Manual 3.13.11

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of Work. Scene, verse, etc.

Shakespeare W. As You Like It. Act 2, scene 7, line 139.

OR

Aristotle. Metaphysics. 3. 2.966b 5-8.

Note: For classical references, the Chicago Manual of Style may be used as a guide.

 


Edition Other than First

AMA Manual 3.12.7

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of Book. 2nd ed. Publisher; Year.

Baum A, Revenson T, Singer J. Handbook of Health Psychology. 2nd ed. Psychology Press; 2012.

 


Translated Work

AMA Manual 3.12.5

Reference List Format:  

Author A A. Title of Book.  Translator BB, trans. Publisher; Year.

Fang F. Wuhan Diary: Dispatches from a Quarantined City. Berry M, trans. HarperCollins; 2020.

 

Multivolume Work

AMA Manual 3.12.6

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of Book. Vol. #. Publisher; Year.

Tomasson, RF. Comparative Social Research: An Annual Publication. Vol. 3. JAI Press; 1980.

Note: Use Arabic numerals for volume numbers even if the publisher has used Roman numerals.

 

Ebook

Choose the Ebook type

More in-text Citation Information


Ebook (Chapter)

AMA Manual 3.4, 3.12.4

Reference List Format  

Author AA. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book. Publisher; Year: chapter number or page numbers.  Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Coles R. Occasional notes: Medical ethics and living a life. In: Stagno S, ed. From Reading to Healing: Teaching Medical Professionalism Through Literature. Kent State University Press; 2019: 28-34. Accessed April 18, 2021. https://fairfield.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/01FUNI_INST/1a3cb3m/alma991005420869604711

 


Ebook (Entire Book)

AMA Manual 3.4, 3.12.2

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of Book. Publisher; Year.  Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Farver C, Ghosh S, GIldea T, Sturgis C. Pulmonary Disease Pathology, Radiology, Bronchoscopy. Springer International Publishing; 2020. Accessed March 3, 2021. https://na04.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/01FUNI_INST/fch04/alma991005444794804711

 

 

 

Journal Article

Choose the Journal type

More in-text Citation Information


Note: AMA uses abbreviations for journals. To find journal abbreviations check the National Library of Medicine.


Online Journal Article

AMA Manual 3.11.4

Reference List Format:  

Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of publication; volume(issue): page numbers. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Rothnie KJ, Mullerova H, Smeeth L, Quint JK. Natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations in a general practice-based population with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AM J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018; 198(4): 464-471. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201710-2029OC

Note: A DOI is preferred.  If there is no DOI use URL and Accessed date.

Author AA. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of publication; volume(issue): page numbers. Accessed date. URL

Baker EF, Iserson KV,  Aswegan AL, Larkin GL, Derse AR, Kraus CK. Open access medical journals: Pomise, perils, and pitfalls. Acad Med. 2019; 95(5): 634-639. Accessed March 2, 2021. https://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/fulltext/2019/05000/open_access_medical_journals__promise,_perils,_and.26.aspx

 


 Print Journal Article

AMA Manual 3.11

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year of publication; volume(issue): page numbers.

Fowler MD. Why the history of nursing ethics matters. Nurs Ethics. 2017; 24(3): 292-304. 

 

Magazine Article

Choose the Magazine type

More in-text Citation Information


Magazine Article from Library Database

AMA Manual 3.11.4

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of article. Magazine Title. Year of publication; volume(issue): page numbers.

Stengel R.  A world of possibilities. Time. 2012; 179(17): 1. Accessed August 9, 2021. http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=74531179&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Note: Include DOI at the end if available. If a DOI is not available, a URL and an accessed date may be used.

 


Magazine Article from Online Website or in Print

AMA Manual 3.11.4

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of article. Magazine Title. Year of publication; volume(issue): page numbers. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Barath H. New blood analyzer tells human from animal samples on the spot. Scientific American. 2021; 324(5): 6. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/new-blood-analyzer-tells-human-from-animal-samples-on-the-spot/

Note: If magazine is in print remove Accessed Month Day, Year and URL.

 

Newspaper Article

Choose the Newspaper type

More in-text Citation Information



Article from Newspaper Online

AMA Manual 3.13.1

Reference List Format:  

Author, AA. Title of article. Newspaper Title. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Kolata G. They have Alzheimer's. This clinical trial may be a last hope. New York Times. April 22, 2021. Accessed April 24, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/22/health/alzheimers-clinical-trials.html

Note: If there is a DOI use that in place of Accessed Month Day, Year and URL. 

 


Print Newspaper Article

AMA Manual 3.13.1

Reference List Format:  

Author, AA. Title of article. Newspaper Title. Month Day, Year: pages. 

Kolata G. They are in a clinical trial for Alzheimer's to keep hope alive. New York Times. April 23, 2021: A23.

 

Website, Blog, or Social Media

Choose the Source type

More in-text Citation Information


 

Website

AMA Manual 3.15.3

Reference List Format:  

Author AA or Organization. Title of Article or Item. Name of Website. Published Month Day, Year. Updated Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Conditions and treatments. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. January 27, 2021. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments

Note: If Author/Organization is the same as the Name of Website only put once. If there is no Updated date then omit. 

 

 

 

 


Legal Reference

AMA Manual 3.15.11, 3.16

Reference List Format:  

First party v second party, Reporter volume number Official reporter abbreviation First page of case, specific page of case used if applicable (Deciding circuit court and Year of decision).

Scoles v Mercy Health Corp, 887 F Supp 765 (ED Pa 1994).

 

 

Note: For more examples of legal references see 3.16-3.17 in AMA Manual.

Reports - Government or Organizational

AMA Manual 3.15.5

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of report. Month Day, Year(if available). Accessed Month Day, Year. URL 

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National healthcare quality & disparities report 2018. September, 2019. Accessed March 30, 2021. https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/2018qdr-intro-methods.pdf

 


Blog Posting

AMA Manual 3.15.4

Reference List Format:  

Author AA. Title of post. Title of Blog blog. Month Day, Year.  Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Simon N. How different types of museums approach participation. Museum 2.0 blog. February 9, 2020. Accessed March 3, 2021. https://museumtwo.blogspot.com/2010/02/how-different-types-of-museums-approach.html  

 


Social Media

AMA Manual 3.15.4

Reference List Format:  

The AMA Manual provides general guidelines for social media as shown below. See section 3.15.4 of the manual for more suggestions and guidance. 

Author AA.  Title of post or content if short. Month Day, Year.  Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

  

 

Tweet

AMA Manual 3.15.4

Reference List Format:  

@username. Content of post. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL 

@NYTimes. Throughout the U.S., marine labs that study the environment are being threatened by climate change. January 7, 2020. Accessed April 1, 2020https://twitter.com/nytimes/status/1214685673082511360

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

 

Facebook

AMA Manual 3.15.4

Reference List Format:  

Author Facebook page. Title of post or entire post depending on length. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL 

American Psychological Association Facebook page. Are you setting some goals to ring in the new year? Accessed March 5, 2021. https://www.facebook.com/pg/AmericanPsychologicalAssociation/posts/

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

 

 

E-mail or Personal Communication

Choose the source type

 

​E-mail

AMA Manual 3.13.10

Reference List Format:  

Note: E-mails (like other personal communication) are not included in the reference list; however, cite the e-mail in the text and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a specific date.

 


Personal Communication

AMA Manual 3.13.10

Reference List Format:  

Note: Personal communication (such as letters, memos, e-mails, personal interviews and telephone conversations) are not included in the reference list. Cite the personal communication in the text, and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a date as specific as possible.

 

Audio/Video

Choose the source type


Streaming Video

AMA 3.15.4 and 3.14.1

Reference List Format:  

Author or host. Title of video.  Person or Group that Uploaded Video.  Accessed date. URL 

Koroshetz W. The impact of the opioid crisis on people who are really dealing with chronic pain. National Institutes of Health.  Accessed April 2, 2021. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/videos/impact-opioid-crisis-people-who-are-really-dealing-chronic-pain

OR 

For YouTube page:

Name of account Youtube page. Accessed date. URL

Johns Hopkins Medical Youtube page. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/user/JohnsHopkinsMedicine

Note: If Author and Person or Group that uploaded is the same only put once.

 


DVD or Video

AMA Manual 3.14.1

Reference List Format:  

Author A. Title of DVD or Video. DVD. Publisher; Year.

Hurst JW. Hurst's The Heart. DVD. McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011.

Note: The host may be given as author. 

 

Podcast

AMA Manual 3.14.2

Reference List Format:  

Title. Podcast. Month Day, Year. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL

Interview with Sinead M. Langan, author of "Association Between Atopic Dermatitis and Educational Attainment in Denmark". JAMA Network. April 14, 2021. Accessed April 19, 2021. https://edhub.ama-assn.org/jn-learning/audio-player/18602224

 

Data Set

Data Set

AMA 3.11.4.2.2

Reference List Format:  

From a repository:

Author AA. Data from: Title of data. Title of Repository. Month day, Year published. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx or URL

National Institute of Health. Data from: Lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large b-cell lymphoma.  National Cancer Institute CDC Data Portal. 2021. https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/projects/TCGA-DLBC

Or from a journal:

Author AA. Data from: Title of data. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Year;Volume(Issue): pages. doi:xxxxxxxxxx

Gupta R, Sandison A, Wenig BM, Thompson LDR. Data from: Reporting of ear and temporal bone tumors: Explanations and recommendations of the guidelines from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2019;143(5): 593-602.  doi:10.5858/arpa.2018-0415-SA

Note: If you are citing existing data or statistics, cite the publication in which the data were published (e.g., a journal article, report, or webpage) rather than the data set itself.

 

 

 

 

 

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI, and how do I find it? A DOI is an alpha-numeric code that provides a persistent link to an article location on the Internet. With an HTML full-text article, the DOI is often found in the online citation of the article. With a PDF article, the DOI is often found on the beginning page of the article. Not all articles have a DOI. 

Online Journal Article | Newspaper Article from Library Database

Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper: Online Resources
 
 
For additional help, contact a Research Librarian