Skip to main content

Citation Guides

Chicago Notes-Bibliography 17

Table of Contents

Chicago Citations: Notes-Bibliography System 17th Edition

The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed. Ref. Z 253.U69 2017 or online) is composed of two different documentation systems:

  • Notes-Bibliography style: preferred by those in the humanities
  • Author-Date system: preferred by those in the sciences

The examples on this page are in the Notes-Bibliography Style. Be sure to find out from your professor which Chicago documentation system they would like you to use.*

*Note: The Fairfield University History Department requires its students to use Notes-Bibliography style.

Commonly Cited Sources in Chicago: Notes-Bibliography style:

 

 

Book

Choose a book type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Book with One Author

Chicago Manual 14.23

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

First Note:

    1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 7.

Shortened Note:

    2. Zelizer, Remembering to Forget, 7.

   

Book Author and Editor

Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.104

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Edited by Editor's Name. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization. Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

First Note:

     1. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.

Shortened Note:

    2. Tylor, Researches, 194.


Book with Two or Three Authors

Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.76

Bibliography:

Footnote:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, and Second Author's First Name and Last Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Mock, Douglas W., and Geoffrey A. Parker. The Evolution of Sibling Rivalry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

First Note:

    2. Douglas W. Mock and Geoffrey A. Parker, The Evolution of Sibling Rivalry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 72.

Shortened Note:

    3. Mock and Parker, Evolution of Sibling Rivalry, 72.


Book with Four or More Authors

Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.76

Bibliography:

Footnote:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, Second Author's First Name and Last Name, Third Author's First Name and Last Name, Fourth Author's First Name and Last Name, Fifth Author's First Name and Last Name, and Sixth Author's First Name and Last Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Dasco, Sheryl Tatar, Clifford C. Dasco, Connie U. Brelhan, Kirk C. Harlow, Margaret S. Jaffee-Neer, Marilyn Rumsey, and Ellison H. Wittels. Managed Care Answer Book. New York: Panel Publisher, 1995.

First Note:

    17. Sheryl Tatar Dasco et al., Managed Care Answer Book (New York: Panel Publishers, 1995), 122.

Shortened Note:

    18. Dasco et al., Managed Care Answer Book, 122.


No Author

Chicago Manual 14.79

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Anonymous. Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Date of Publication.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Note: If a book is listed as 'anonymous', then that word should be included at the beginning of the citation. If not, use of 'anonymous' should generally be avoided and reference can begin with the title.

First Note:

    18. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), 6.

Shortened Note:

    19. American Heritage Dictionary, 6.


Organization as Author

Chicago Manual 14.84

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Name of Organization. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1998.

First Note:

    12. American Psychiatric Association, Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder (Washington, DC: APA, 1998), 7.

Shortened Note:

    13. American Psychiatric Association, Practice Guideline, 7.


Introductions, Prefaces, Afterwards, and the Like

Chicago Manual 14.110

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Preface (or use Foreword or Introduction) to Title of Book, by Book's Author, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Date of Publication.

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Jr. Foreword to Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends, by Joseph P. Lash, vii-viii. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1982.

First Note:

    12. Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr., foreword to Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends, by Joseph P. Lash (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1982), vii.

Shortened Note:

    13. Roosevelt, foreword, vii.


Book Chapter (Contribution to a Multiauthor Book)

Chicago Manual 14.107

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Benedict, Karen. "Archival Ethics." In Managing Archives and Archival Institutions, edited by James Gregory Bradsher, 174-84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.106 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. for the appropriate citation example.

First Note:

    3. Karen Benedict, "Archival Ethics," in Managing Archives and Archival Institutions, ed. James Gregory Bradsher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), 176.

Shortened Note:

    4. Benedict, "Archival Ethics," 176.


Edition other than First

Chicago Manual 14.113

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Edition number ed. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Bukatko, Danuta, and Marvin A. Daehler. Child Development: A Thematic Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004.

First Note:

    8. Danuto Bukatko and Marvin A. Daehler, Child Development: A Thematic Approach, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004), 78.

Shortened Note:

    9. Bukatko and Daehler, Child Development, 78.


Translated Work

Chicago Manual 14.104

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Date of Publication.

Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by Joyce Crick. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

First Note:

    33. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, trans. Joyce Crick (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 28.

Shortened Note:

    34. Freud, Interpretation of Dreams, 28.


Multivolume Work (Citing Only 1 Volume)

Chicago Manual 14.118-119 (see also 14.116, 14.120-122)

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Multivolume Work. Vol. Volume Number, Title of Volume. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. Vol. 1, The Birth of Britain. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956.

Note: Always give the volume number in an arabic numeral, even if a book has the volume number in a roman numeral or spelled out.

First Note:

    39. Winston S. Churchill, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, vol. 1, The Birth of Britain (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956), 88.

Shortened Form:

    40. Churchill, History, 1:88.


Multivolume Work (Citing all the Volumes)

Chicago Manual 14.117 (see also 14.116, 14.120-122)

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last name, Author's First Name. Title of Multivolume Work. Number of Volumes vols. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year(s) of Publication.

Cook, Blanche Weisen. Eleanor Roosevelt. 2 vols. New York: Viking, 1992-99.

Note: Always give the volume numbers in arabic numerals, even if the book has the volume numbers in roman numerals or spelled out.

Note: If the work has not yet been completed, the date of the first volume is followed by a dash and the punctuation that follows (e.g. 1992-.)

First Note:

    38. Blanche Weisen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt, 2 vols., (New York: Viking, 1992-99).

 

Shortened Form:

    39. Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt.


Encyclopedia Entry

Chicago Manual 14.232-234

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Print Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. s.v. "Title of Article." Edition. Number of Volumes. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law. s.v. "North Atlantic Treaty Organization." 2nd ed. 10 vols. Detroit: Thompson Gale, 2005.

Electronic Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. s.v. "Title of Article". Publisher, Year of Publication. Article published Month Day, Year of Publication [if no publication or revision date is available, provide an access date]. DOI or stable URL.

Encyclopedia of Global Religion. s.v. "Kenya". Sage, 2012. Accessed July 17, 2012. http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=474348&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_658.

Signed Encyclopedia Entry:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." In Title of Encyclopedia. Publisher, Year of Publication. Publication or Revision Date [if no publication or revision date is available, provide an access date]. DOI or stable URL [if electronic].

Stalley, Roger. "Clonmacnois Monastery." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2003. Last modified October 2, 2012.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T018242.

Note: Well-known encyclopedias are often omitted in the Bibliography and only included in the notes. Above is a more formal example. For well known references such as Encyclopaedia Britannica, you can omit publisher and location, but the edition must be included. For lesser known publications, this information should be included. If items are listed alphabetically, use abbreviation "s.v.", short for sub verbo, or "under the word".

First Note:

Print:

    34. West's Encyclopedia of American Law, 2nd ed. (2005), s.v. "North Atlantic Treaty Organization."

Electronic:

    34. Encyclopedia of Global Religion, s.v. "Kenya," Sage, 2012, accessed July 17, 2012, http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=474348&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_658.

Signed

    34. Roger Stalley, "Clonmacnois Monastery," in Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, 2003, last modified October 2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T018242.
 

Shortened Note:

Print:

    35. West's Encyclopedia of American Law, s.v "North Atlantic Treaty Organization."

Electronic:

    35. Encyclopedia of Global Religion, s.v. "Kenya."

Signed:

    35. Stalley, "Clonmacnois Monastery."

 

Ebook

Choose an ebook type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Ebook (Chapter)

Chicago Manual 14.107 and 14.159-14.163

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. Format of ebook.

Khan, Paul. "A Civil Religion of Human Rights?" In Civil Religion, Human Rights and International Relations: Connecting People Across Cultures and Traditions, edited by Porsdam Helle, 49-65. Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2012. EBL ebook.

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.106 for the appropriate citation example. Include last modified date and URL if applicable.

First Note:

    5. Paul Khan, "A Civil Religion of Human Rights?," in Civil Religion, Human Rights and International Relations: Connecting People Across Cultures and Traditions, ed. Porsdam Helle (Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2012), 52, EBL ebook.

Shortened Note:

    6. Khan, "A Civil Religion," 52.

Note: When citing an ebook that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading or another reference marker in the note.


Ebook (Entire Book)

Chicago Manual 14.23, 14.159-14.163

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. Format of ebook.

Russell, Martin. Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. New York: Broadway Books, 2001. ebrary collections ebook.

First Note:

    5. Martin Russell, Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), 33, ebrary collections ebook.

Shortened Note:

    6. Russell, Beethoven's Hair, 33.

Note: When citing an ebook that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading or another reference marker in the note.

Journal Article

Choose a journal type

 

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation. 

More in-text Citation Information


Journal Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.175

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of Publication): page numbers. DOI or stable URL.

Friedman, Max Paul. "Simulacrobama: The Mediated Election of 2008." Journal of American Studies 43, no. 2 (2009): 341-356. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021875809990090.

Or:

Kenseth, Joy. "Bernini's Borghese Sculptures: Another View." The Art Bulletin 63, no. 2 (1981): 191-210. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3050112.

Note: If neither a DOI or a stable URL is available, then use the name of the database rather than the URL.

First Note:

    4. Max Paul Friedman, "Simulacrobama: The Mediated Election of 2008," Journal of American Studies 43, no. 2 (2009): 342, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021875809990090.

Shortened Note:

    5. Friedman, "Simulacrobama," 342.


Article from an Online Journal

Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.175

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of Publication): page numbers. DOI or stable URL.

Humphrey, Laura L. "Structural Analysis of Parent-Child Relationships in Eating Disorders." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, no. 4 (November 1986): 395-402. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.95.4.395.

Or:

Salama, Ashraf M. "A Theory for Integrating Knowledge in Architectural Design Education." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research 2, no. 1 (2008): 100-28. http://archnet.org/ publications/5097.

 

First Note:

    4. Laura L. Humphrey, "Structural Analysis of Parent-Child Relationships in Eating Disorders," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, no. 4 (November 1986): 396, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.95.4.395.

Shortened Note:

    5. Humphrey, "Structural Analysis," 396.


Print Journal Article

Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.168-14.174

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of Publication): page numbers.

Greenberg, Anna. "Race, Religiosity, and the Women's Vote." Women & Politics 22, no. 3 (2001): 59-82.

First Note:

    4. Anna Greenberg, "Race, Religiosity, and the Women's Vote," Women & Politics 22, no. 3 (2001): 61.

Shortened Note:

    5. Greenberg, "Race,” 61.


Review

Chicago Manual 14.201-14.204

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author of Review's Last Name, Author of Review's First Name. "Title of Article [if any]." Review of Title of Book being reviewed, by Author's First and Last Name. Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of Publication): page numbers. DOI or stable URL.

Sorby, Angela. Review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley Ruben. American Historical Review 113, no. 2 (April 2008): 449-51. https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr.113.2.449.

Note: Cite book reviews by author of the review and include book title and author(s) or editor(s). Follow applicable guidelines for citing periodicals.

First Note:

  6. Angela Sorby, review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley Rubin, American Historical Review 113, no. 2 (April 2008): 450, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr.113.2.449.

Shortened Note:

  7. Sorby, Songs of Ourselves, 450.

Magazine Article

Choose a magazine type

 

More in-text Citation Information



Magazine Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.188-14.189, 14.198, and 15.49 (AD)

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication. Stable URL or name of database.

Vick, Karl. "Cuba on the Cusp." Time, April 6, 2015. http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=egs&AN=101753556&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Or:

Brown, Rob. "The Last Boom Industry." New Statesman, March 26, 2012. Academic OneFile.

Note: A stable URL is preferable at the end of the citation but if none is available use the name of the database.

Note: Weekly, bimonthly, or monthly magazines, even if numbered by volume and issue, are usually cited by date only. While a specific page number may be cited in a note, the inclusive page numbers of an article may be omitted.

Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198 and 15.49 (AD)). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    8. Karl Vick, "Cuba on the Cusp," Time, April 6, 2015, 35, http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=egs&AN=101753556&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Shortened Note:

    9. Vick, "Cuba on the Cusp," 35.

 

 

 


Magazine Article from Online Website

Chicago Manual 14.188-14.189, 14.198, and 15.49 (AD)

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication. URL.

Malcolm, Janet. "Depth of Field: Thomas Struth's Way of Seeing." New Yorker, September 26, 2011. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/09/26/depth-of-field.

Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198 and 15.49 (AD)). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    2. Janet Malcolm, "Depth of Field: Thomas Struth's Way of Seeing," New Yorker, September 26, 2011, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/09/26/depth-of-field.

Shortened Note:

    3. Malcolm, "Depth of Field." 


Print Magazine Article

Chicago Manual 14.188-14.189, 14.198, and 15.49 (AD)

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication.

Fineman, Howard. "The Political Winds of War." Newsweek, May 7, 2007.

Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198 and 15.49 (AD)). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    10. Howard Fineman, "The Political Winds of War," Newsweek, May 7, 2007, 45.

Shortened Note:

    11. Fineman, "Political," 45.

Newspaper Article

Choose a newspaper type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Newspaper Article From a Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.191

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month Day, Year of Publication. Stable URL or Name of Database.

Harmon, Amy. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them." New York Times, December 10, 2006. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times.

Note: A stable URL is preferable at the end of the citation but if none is available use the name of the database.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    6. Amy Harmon, "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them," New York Times, December 10, 2006, 1, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times.

Shortened Note:

    7. Harmon, "DNA Gatherers," 1.


Article From Newspaper Website

Chicago Manual 14.191

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month Day, Year of Publication. URL.

Harmon, Amy. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them." New York Times, December 10, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/ us/10dna.html.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    6. Amy Harmon, "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them," New York Times, December 10, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/us/10dna.html.

Shortened Note:

    7. Harmon, "DNA Gatherers."


Print Newspaper Article

Chicago Manual 14.191

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month Day, and Year of Publication, Section, Edition.

Vogel, Carol. "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty." New York Times, June 11, 2007, Arts section, East Coast edition.

Note: In a note or bibliographic entry, it may be useful to add "Final edition," "Midwest edition," or some such identifier. If the paper is is published in several sections, the section number (e.g., sec. 1) or title (e.g., Nation) may be given.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    11. Carol Vogel, "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty," New York Times, June 11, 2007, E1, Arts section, East Coast edition.

Shortened Note:

    12. Vogel, "Art," E1.


Newspaper Article with an Unknown Author

Chicago Manual 14.199

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Title of Newspaper. "Title of Article." Month Day, Year of Publication.

Hartford Courant. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record." November 26, 2006.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    7. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record," Hartford Courant, November 26, 2006.

Shortened Note:

    8. "Number," Hartford Courant.


Letter to the Editor

Chicago Manual 14.196

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First name. Letter to the editor. Title of Newspaper, Month Day, and Year of Publication.

Ashram, Jane. Letter to the editor. Boston Globe, November 9, 2006.

Note: Published letters to the editor are treated generically, without headlines.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    4. Jane Ashram, letter to the editor, Boston Globe, November 9, 2006, A16.

Shortened Note:

    5. Ashram, letter to the editor, A16.

Website, Blog, or Social Media

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Website

Chicago Manual 14.207

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author of the Site. "Title of Web Page." Owner/Sponsor of Site. Published, Modified, or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

Watson, Ivan. "Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring." CNN.com. Last modified October 23, 2011. http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/23/world/africa/tunisia-elections/index.html.

Note: Websites are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    13. Ivan Watson, "Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring," CNN.com, last modified October 23, 2011, http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/23/world/africa/tunisia-elections/index.html.

Shortened Note:

    14. Watson, "Tunisians Vote."


Website, no author

Chicago Manual 14.207

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Owner/Sponsor of Site. "Title of Web Page." Published, Modified, or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

9 News. "Victorian Smoking Rates Hit Record Low." Accessed August 17, 2012. https://www.9news.com.au/technology/2012/10/09/17/08/victorian-smoking-rates-hit-record-low.

Note: Cite the web page in the bibliography by the owner or sponsor of the site. If there is no publication date or last modified date, use the date when you accessed the web page.

Note: Websites are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    6. "Victorian Smoking Rates Hit Record Low," 9 News, accessed August 17, 2012, https://www.9news.com.au/technology/2012/10/09/17/08/victorian-smoking-rates-hit-record-low.

Shortened Note:

    7. "Victorian Smoking Rates."


Blog Posting

Chicago Manual 14.208

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Entry." Title of Blog (blog), Month Day, and Year of Entry. URL.

Lennon, J. Robert. "How Do You Revise?." Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010. http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

If citing an entire blog:

AHA Today (blog). http://blog.historians.org/education/919/inuit-contact-an-arctic-culture-teaching-resource.

Note: Blogs are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    9. J. Robert Lennon, "How Do You Revise?," Ward Six (Blog), September 16, 2010, http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

Shortened Note:

    10. Lennon, "How Do You Revise?.”


Social Media

Chicago Manual 14.209

Bibliography:

Footnote:

In text:

Conan O'Brien's tweet was characteristically deadpan: "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets" (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

In a bibliography:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name (Handle/Username if available). "Title of Posting." Social Media Type, Month Day, Year, Time of Posting. URL.

O'Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets." Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). "President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit." Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

Diaz, Junot. "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume." Facebook, February 24, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

Note: Because social media is subject to editing and deletion, retaining of copy of anything cited is suggested.

Note: Social media is often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    9. Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Shortened Note:

    10. O'Brien, "Earth Day."

E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


E-mail

Chicago Manual 14.214

Bibliography:

Footnote:

In text:

In her e-mail to the author on December 6, 2006, Barbara Smith described...

Note: Email is usually cited only within the text of the paper or a note.

First Note:

    6. Barbara Smith, e-mail message to author, December 6, 2006.

Shortened Note:

    7. Smith, e-mail message.


Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)

Chicago Manual 14.210

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Message Author's Last Name, Message Author's First Name. "Title of Subject or Thread." Title of List or Forum (followed by List or Forum if not part of the title), the Title of any Host Site, the Date of the Message or Post. URL.

Abungu, Lorna. "Valuing ethnographic objects." ICME Electronic Mailing List, April 13, 2007. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/icme/message/155.

Note: Electronic mailing list messages are usually cited only within the text of the paper or a note.

First Note:

    7. Lorna Abungu, "Valuing ethnographic objects," ICME Electronic Mailing List, April 13, 2007, http://groups.yahoo.com/group icme/message/155.

Shortened Note:

    8. Abungu, "Valuing ethnographic objects."


Personal Communication

Chicago Manual 14.214

Bibliography:

Footnote:

In text:

In a telephone conversation between Sarah Jones and the author on June 22, 2006...

Note: Personal communications such as face to face conversation, telephone conversation, text messages, etc. are not typically included in the bibliography. They may be cited in the running text of your paper or a note.

First Note:

    4. Sarah Jones, telephone conversation, June 22, 2006.

Shortened Note:

    5. Jones, telephone conversation.

Audio/Video

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Online Video

Chicago Manual 14.267

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Film. Name of Publisher, Date of Work, Format of Film. From Source, Collection Name. Medium, Duration of film. URL.

Edison, Thomas A. Sleighing Scene. Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 1898, 35mm film. From Library of Congress, America at Work, America at Leisure: MotionPictures from 1894-1915. RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time video, 47 sec. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/ lcmp002.m2a38968.

"Football Medley and Bright College Years ~Fenno Heath Yale Glee Club 1990." Video, 8:32. From the performance at the 1990 Commencement Concert, posted by "Peggy Heath Ogilvy," February 22, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=yale+glee+club+1990.

 

First Note:

    6. Thomas A. Edison, Sleighing Scene (Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 1898), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, America at Work, America at Leisure: Motion Pictures from 1894-1915, RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time video, 47 sec., http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/lcmp002. m2a38968.

Shortened Note:

      7. Edison, Sleighing Scene.


Podcasts

Chicago Manual 14.267

Bibliography: Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Podcast." Date of Podcast. In Podcast Series, Producer. Podcast. Format, Time. URL.

Danforth, Mike, and Ian Chillag. "F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points." April 21, 2015. In How to Do Everything, produced by Gillian Donovan. Podcast. MP3 audio, 18:46. http://www.podcasts.com/npr_how_to_do_everything_podcast/episode/f-bombs-chicken-and-exclamation-points.

Note: If the source has no date, use the date of last access.

First Note:

    6. Mike Danforth and Ian Chillag, "F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points," April 21, 2015, in How to Do Everything, produced by Gillian Donovan, podcast, MP3 audio, 18:46, http://www.podcasts.com/npr_how_to_do_everything_podcast/episode/f-bombs-chicken-and-exclamation-points.

Shortened Note:

    7. Danforth and Chillag, "F-Bombs."


Motion Picture

Chicago Manual 14.265

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Director's Last Name, Director's First Name, dir. Title of Movie. Original Release Date; Location of Distributor: Name of Distributor, Item Release Date. Medium.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. Rear Window. 1954; Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures, 2001. DVD.

"Crop Duster Attack." North by Northwest. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1959. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000. DVD.

 

First Note:

    33. Alfred Hitchcock, dir., Rear Window (1954; Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures, 2001), DVD.

Shortened Note:

    34. Hitchcock, Rear Window.


Sound Recording

Chicago Manual 14.263

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Name of Composer, Conductor, or Performer (depends on who you emphasize in your paper). Title of Recording. Name of Composer, Conductor, and/or Performer (if they are not listed at the beginning of the bibliography entry). Recording Date. Name of Recording Company Music Number, Copyright Date, medium.

Dylan, Bob. All Along the Watchtower. Jimi Hendrix. Recorded 1968. MCA MCAD-10895, 1993, compact disc.

First Note:

    13. Bob Dylan, All Along the Watchtower, Jimi Hendrix, recorded 1968, MCA MCAD-10895, 1993, compact disc.

Shortened Note:

    14. Dylan, All Along the Watchtower.


Television Episode

Chicago Manual 14.265

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Director's Last Name, Director's First Name, dir. Title of Series. Season Number, Episode Number, "Title of Episode." Original Air Date, Network. URL

Mayberry, Russ, dir. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, "Her Sister's Shadow." Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC. https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

 

First Note:

    8. Russ Mayberry, dir., The Brady Bunch, Season 3, episode 10, "Her Sister's Shadow," aired November 19, 1971, on ABC, https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

Shortened Note:

    9. Mayberry, "Her Sister's Shadow."


Television Series

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Series, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Title of Series. Creator(s) of Series. Producer(s) of Series. Original Air Dates, Network.

The West Wing. Created by Aaron Sorkin. Produced by Aaron Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells, Alex Graves, and Christopher Misiano. Aired 1999-2006, on NBC.

First Note:

    8. The West Wing, created by Aaron Sorkin, produced by Aaron Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells, Alex Graves, and Christopher Misiano, aired 1999-2006, on NBC.

Shortened Note:

    9. The West Wing.

Image or Advertisement

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Online Images

Chicago Manual 14.235 and 8.198

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Work. Date of Work. Medium. Title of Source, Location, Date of Publication. URL.

McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December 1984. Photograph. National Geographic, cover, June 1985. http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/5k25q7.

Note: Titles of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and photographs are italicized. Titles of antiquities are set in roman.

First Note:

     5. Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl, December 1984, photograph, National Geographic, cover, June 1985, http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/5k25q7.

Shortened Note:

    6. McCurry, Afghan Girl.


Work of Art

Chicago Manual 14.235 and 8.198

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. Title of Work. Date. Medium. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL (if viewed online).

Hopper, Edward. Railroad Sunset. 1929. Oil on canvas. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. http://collection.whitney.org/object/5874.

Note: Information about works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than a note or the bibliography.

Note: Titles of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and photographs are italicized. Titles of antiquities are set in roman.

First Note:

    14. Edward Hopper, Railroad Sunset, 1929, oil on canvas, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, http://collection.whitney.org/object/5874.

Note: If the exact date is not available, use an approximate date preceded by ca. (short for circa) before it.

Shortened Note:

    15. Hopper, Railroad Sunset.


Advertisement

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Advertisements, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Product, Company, or Institution Name. "Title of Advertisement." (if applicable) Advertisement. Name of Publication, Publication Date, Page Number (for print) or URL (for electronic).

Banana Republic. Advertisement. InStyle, October 2006, 51.

Note: Advertisements are not typically included in the bibliography, just in the notes. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

    22. Banana Republic, Advertisement, InStyle, October 2006, 51.

Shortened Note:

    23. Banana Republic, Advertisement, 51.

Secondary Sources

Chicago Manual 14.260, 14.291

A secondary source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. An example would be Sontag's On Photography cited in Zelizer's book Remembering to Forget. Use the format below only if you are unable to examine the original source material (e.g. Sontag's On Photography). The Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources.

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Anchor Books, 1977. Quoted in Barbie Zelizer. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

First Note:

    6. Susan Sontag, On Photography (New York: Anchor Books, 1977), quoted in Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 11.

Shortened Note:

    7. Sontag, On Photography in Zelizer, 2003, 11.

Footnote Information with Examples

Choose an example

 

More in-text Citation Information


Numbering Footnotes and Positioning Footnote Numbers

Chicago Manual 14.24-14.28

Footnotes are numbered consecutively beginning with 1. In the text of your paper, note numbers are superscript. In the footnotes, note numbers are regular size and not raised.

Note:

  • Note: Don't invert the author's name (Author's First Name Author's Last Name),
  • Bibliography: Invert the author's name (Author's Last Name, Author's First Name).

Example: "No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue."1  Put the note number at the end of a sentence or clause and after any punctuation, except for the dash.

    1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 3.

Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

 

Shortened Notes

Chicago Manual 14.29-14.36

Note: Use a full footnote the first time a source is noted, and use a shortened note for subsequent times that the same source is noted.

Full Footnote Example:

    1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 3.

Shortened Footnote Format:

Author's Last Name, Title (shorten if more than 4 words), page number.

    5. Zelizer, Remembering to Forget, 11.


Several Sources Cited in One Note

Chicago Manual 14.28 and 14.57

 

Separate each citation with a semicolon and keep the sources in the same order as they are mentioned in the text.

Example:

Some of the scholars that have addressed this issue are Barbie Zelizer, Martin Russell, and Karen Benedict.3

    3. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 11; Martin Russell, Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), ebrary collections ebook; Karen Benedict, "Archival Ethics," in Managing Archives and Archival Institutions, ed. James Gregory Bradsher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 176.


Using Ibid.

Chicago Manual 14.34

Unlike previous editions, the Chicago Manual now discourages the use of Ibid in favor of the shortened citation. Should there be multiple notes using the same source, the title of the source may be omitted leaving just the author and the page. The page must be cited for each note even if it has not changed from the previous note.

Examples:

        1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 3.

        2. Zelizer, Remembering to Forget, 11.

        3. Zelizer, 11.

        4. Zelizer, 14.


Citations plus Commentary

Chicago Manual 14.37

In the footnote, cite your source first, and then add your commentary.

Example:

    11. Carol Vogel, "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty," New York Times, June 11, 2007, Arts section, East Coast edition. Several African countries were represented in the 52nd Venice Biennale for the first time.

 

Bible

Chicago 14.238-14.241

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Title. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Note: References to the Jewish or Christian scriptures usually appear in text citations or notes rather than bibliographies. Including a Bibliography entry may be used to reference a particular version.

Note: Books of the Bible can be abbreviated, for example, Lev., Num. See 10.44 for when to abbreviate and 10.45-10.47 for full forms, long abbreviations, and short abbreviations. Use a period after the name for the long abbreviation but no period for the short abbreviation.

First Note:

    64. John. 3:2-5 (Authorized King James Version).

Shortened Note:

    65. Jn 3:2-5.

 

Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper: Online Resources

Print Resources

For additional help, contact a Reference Librarian

  • In-person at the Reference Desk
  • By Phone at (203) 254-4000 ext. 2178
  • By E-mail
  • By 24/7 chat