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Chicago Author Date 17

Table of Contents

Chicago Citations: Author-Date System 17th Edition

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed. Ref. Z 253.U69 2017 or online) is composed of two different documentation systems:

  • Author-Date system: preferred by those in the sciences
  • Notes-Bibliography style: preferred by those in the humanities

The examples on this page are in the Author-Date system. Be sure to find out from your professor which Chicago documentation system they would like you to use*

*Note: The Fairfield University History Department requires its students to use Notes-Bibliography style.

Commonly Cited Sources in Chicago: Author-Date system:

 

Book

Choose a book type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Book with One Author

Chicago Manual 15.9

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Zelizer, Barbie. 2003. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

(Zelizer 2003, 11)


Book with Two Authors

Chicago Manual 15.9

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, and Second Author's First Name and Last Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Mock, Douglas W., and Geoffrey A. Parker. 1997. The Evolution of Sibling Rivalry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(Mock and Parker 1997, 73)

Book with Three Authors

Chicago Manual 15.9

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, Second Author's First Name and Last Name, and Third Author's First and Last Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Berkman, Alexander, Henry Bauer, and Carl Nold. 2011. Prison Blossoms: Anarchist Voices from the American Past. Edited by Miriam Brody and Bonnie Buettner. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

(Berkman, Bauer, and Nold 2011, 7-10)


Book with Four or More Authors

Chicago Manual 15.9

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, Second Author's First Name and Last Name, Third Author's First Name and Last Name, Fourth Author's First Name and Last Name, Fifth Author's First Name and Last Name, and Sixth Author's First Name and Last Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Dasco, Sheryl Tatar, Clifford C. Dasco, Connie U. Brelhan, Kirk C. Harlow, Margaret S. Jaffee-Neer, Marilyn Rumsey, and Ellison H. Wittels. 1995. Managed Care Answer Book. New York: Panel Publishers.

(Dasco et al. 1995, 122)


Book with Author and Editor/Translator

Chicago Manual 15.9

Reference List Format: In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Edited by Editor's Name. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Tylor, Edward B. 1964. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization. Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

(Tylor 1964, 194)

 


No Author

Chicago Manual 15.34

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Anonymous. Year of Publication. Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2000. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Stanze in lode della donna brutta. 1547. Florence.

Note: If a book is listed as 'Anonymous', then that word should be included at the beginning of the citation. Otherwise, the reference should normally begin with the title. An initial article is ignored in alphabetizing. Text citations may refer to a short form of the title but must include the first word (other than an initial article).

 

(American Heritage Dictionary 2000, 156)

 

(Stanze in lode della donna brutta 1547) or (Stanze 1547)


Organization as Author

Chicago Manual 15.37

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Initials of Organization (Name of Organization). Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher [Initials may be used if they are the same as the author].

APA (American Psychiatric Association). 1998. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder. Washington, DC: APA.

OR

Name of Organization. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher [Initials may be used if they are the same as the author].

American Psychiatric Association. 1998. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

(APA 1998, 26)

 

 

Or:

 

 

(American Psychiatric Association 1998, 26)

Note: The organization name may be abbreviated in the in-text citation. When using the abbreviation, alphabetize the reference list entry by abbreviated name, instead of the spelled out name.


Preface, Foreword, Introduction

Chicago Manual 14.110 (NB) and 15.3

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Preface (or Foreword or Introduction) to Title of Book, by Book's Author, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Jr. 1982. Foreword to Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends, by Joseph P. Lash, vii-viii. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company.

(Roosevelt 1982, vii)


Book Chapter (Contribution to a Multi-Author Book)

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.107-108 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Benedict, Karen. 1988. "Archival Ethics." In Managing Archives and Archival Institutions, edited by James Gregory Bradsher, 174-84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 15.9 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. for the appropriate citation example.

(Benedict 1988, 176)


Edition Other Than First

Chicago Manual 14.113 (NB) and 15.3

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Edition number. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Buktato, Danuta and Marvin A. Daehler. 2004. Child Development: A Thematic Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

(Buktato and Daehler 2004, 78)


Translated Work

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.104 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Freud, Sigmund. 1999. The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by Joyce Crick. New York: Oxford University Press.

(Freud 1999, 28)


Multivolume Work Published over Several Years (Citing Only 1 Volume)

Chicago Manual 15.41 and 14.116-122 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication for Specific Volume. Title of Volume. Vol. volume number of Title of Multivolume Work. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year(s) of Publication.

Churchill, Winston S. 1956. The Birth of Britain. Vol. 1 of A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956-58.

Note: If the work has not yet been completed, the date of the first volume is followed by a dash and the punctuation that follows (e.g. 1956-.)

(Churchill 1956, 88)


Multivolume Work Published over Several Years (Citing all the Volumes)

Chicago Manual 15.41 and 14.116-122 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year(s) of Publication. Title of Multivolume Work. Number of Volumes vols. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Cook, Blanche Weisen. 1992-99. Eleanor Roosevelt. 2 vols. New York: Viking.

Note: Always give the volume numbers in arabic numerals, even if the book has the volume numbers spelled out in roman numerals.

(Cook 1992-99, 1:52)


Encyclopedia Entry

Chicago Manual 14.232-234 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Print Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. Year of Publication. s.v. "Title of Article." Edition. Number of Volumes. Place of Publication: Publisher.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. s.v. "North Atlantic Treaty Organization." 2nd ed. 10 vols. Detroit: Thompson Gale.

Electronic Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. Year of Publication. s.v. "Title of Article". Publisher. Article published Month Day, Year of Publication [if no publication or revision date is available, provide an access date]. DOI or stable URL.

Encyclopedia of Global Religion. 2009. s.v. "Kenya". Sage. Accessed July 17, 2012. http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=474348&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_658.

Signed Encyclopedia Entry:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." In Title of Encyclopedia. Publisher. Publication or Revision Date [if no publication or revision date is available, provide an access date]. DOI or stable URL [if electronic].

Stalley, Roger. 2003. "Clonmacnois Monastery." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Last modified October 2, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T018242.

Note: Well-known encyclopedias are often omitted in the Reference List and only included in in-text citations. Above is a more formal example. For well known references such as Encyclopaedia Britannica, you can omit publisher and location, but the edition must be included. For lesser known publications, this information should be included. If items are listed alphabetically, use abbreviation "s.v.", short for sub verbo, or "under the word".

If No Reference List Is Used:

Print:

(West's Encyclopedia of American Law, 2005, s.v. "North Atlantic Treaty Organization," 2nd ed., 10 vols., Detroit: Thompson Gale)

Electronic:

(Encyclopedia of Global Religion, 2009, s.v. "Kenya," Sage, accessed July 17, 2012, http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=474348&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_658)

Signed:

(Roger Stalley, 2003, "Clonmacnois Monastery," in Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, last modified October 2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T018242)

 

If A Reference List is Used:

Print:

(West's Encyclopedia of American Law 2005)

Electronic:

(Encyclopedia of Global Religion 2009)

Signed:

(Stalley 2003)
 

Ebook

Choose an ebook type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Ebook (Chapter)

Chicago Manual 15.9, 14.106 (NB), 14.23 (NB), and 14.159-14.163 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher. Format of ebook or URL.

Khan, Paul. 2012. "A Civil Religion of Human Rights?" In Civil Religion, Human Rights and International Relations: Connecting People Across Cultures and Traditions, edited by Porsdam Helle, 49-65. Northampton: Edward Elgar. EBL ebook.

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.106 (NB) for the appropriate citation example. Include last modified date and URL if applicable.

(Khan 2012, 52)

Note: When citing an ebook that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading or another reference marker in the note.


Ebook (Entire Book)

Chicago Manual 15.9, 14.23, 14.159-14.163

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher. Format of ebook or URL.

Russell, Martin. 2001. Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. New York: Broadway Books. ebrary collections ebook.

(Russell 2001, 33)

Note: When citing an ebook that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading or another reference marker in the note.

Journal Article

Choose a journal type

 

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation. 

More in-text Citation Information


Journal Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 15.9, 14.23 (NB), and 14.175 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Month or Season): page numbers. DOI or stable URL.

Friedman, Max Paul. 2009. "Simulacrobama: The Mediated Election of 2008." Journal of American Studies 43, no. 2 (June): 341-356. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021875809990090.

Or:

Kenseth, Joy. 1981. "Bernini's Borghese Sculptures: Another View." The Art Bulletin 63, no. 2 (June): 191-210. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3050112.

Note: If neither a DOI or a stable URL is available, then use the name of the database rather than the URL.

           If no month or season listed, the issue number should be placed in parenthesis. Example:

Glass, Jennifer, and Philip Levachak, 2014. "Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rate." American Journal of Sociology 119 (4): 1002-46. https://doi.org/10.1086/674703

(Friedman 2009, 342)


Article from an Online Journal

Chicago Manual 15.9, 14.23 (NB), and 14.175 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Month or Season if included): page numbers. https://doi.org/:xxxxxxxxxxxx.

Humphrey, Laura L. 1986. "Structural Analysis of Parent-Child Relationships in Eating Disorders." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95, no. 4 (November): 395-402. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021- 843X.95.4.395.

Or:

Salama, Ashraf M. 2008. "A Theory for Integrating Knowledge in Architectural Design Education." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research 2 (1): 100-28. http://archnet.org/ publications/5097.

Note: If a DOI is not available, use a URL.

(Humphrey 1986, 396)


Print Journal Article

Chicago Manual 15.9, 14.23 (NB), and 14.168-174 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number: page numbers.

Greenberg, Anna. 2001. "Race, Religiosity, and the Women's Vote." Women & Politics 22, no. 3: 59-82.

(Greenberg 2001, 61)


Review

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.201-14.204 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author of Review's Last Name, Author of Review's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article [if any]." Review of Title of Book being reviewed, by Author's First and Last Name. Title of Journal volume number, no. issue number: page numbers. DOI or stable URL (if online).

Sorby, Angela. 2008. Review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley Ruben. American Historical Review 113, no. 2 (April): 449-51. https://doi.org /10.1086/ahr.113.2.449. 

Note: Cite book reviews by author of the review and include book title and author(s) or editor(s). Follow applicable guidelines for citing periodicals.

(Sorby 2008, 450)  

Magazine Article

Choose a magazine type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Magazine Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 15.49 and 14.188-189 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication. Stable URL or name of database.

Vick, Karl. 2015. "Cuba on the Cusp." Time, April 6, 2015. http://libdb.fairfield.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=egs&AN=101753556&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Or:

Brown, Rob. 2012. "The Last Boom Industry." New Statesman, March 26, 2012. Academic OneFile.

Note: A stable URL is preferable at the end of the citation but if none is available use the name of the database.

Note: Weekly, bimonthly, or monthly magazines, even if numbered by volume and issue, are usually cited by date only. While a specific page number may be cited in an in-text citation, the inclusive page numbers of an article may be omitted.

Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Vick 2015, "Cuba on the Cusp," Time, April 6, 2015, 38)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Vick 2015, 38)


Magazine Article from Online Website

Chicago Manual 15.49, 15.22, and 14.188-14.189 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication. URL.

Malcolm, Janet. 2011.  "Depth of Field: Thomas Struth's Way of Seeing." New Yorker, September 26, 2011. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/09/26/depth-of-field.

Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Malcolm 2011, "Depth of Field: Thomas Struth's Way of Seeing," New Yorker, September 26, 2011)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Malcolm 2011)


Print Magazine Article

Chicago Manual 15.49, 15.22, and 14.188 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication.

Fineman, Howard. 2007. "The Political Winds of War." Newsweek, May 7, 2007.

Note: Magazines are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text (14.198). Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Fineman 2007, "The Political Winds of War," Newsweek, May 7, 2007, 45)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Fineman 2007, 45)

Newspaper Article

Choose a newspaper type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Newspaper Article From a Library Database

Chicago Manual 15.49, 14.191 (NB), and 14.198 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month Day, Year of Publication. Stable URL or Name of Database.

Harmon, Amy. 2006. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them." New York Times, December 10, 2006. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times.

Note: A stable URL is preferable at the end of the citation but if none is available use the name of the database.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Harmon 2006, "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them," New York Times, December 10, 2006, 1)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Harmon 2006, 1)


Article From Newspaper Website

Chicago Manual 15.49, 14. 191 (NB), and 14.198 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month Day, Year of Publication. URL.

Harmon, Amy. 2006. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them." New York Times, December 10, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/ us/10dna.html.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Harmon 2006, "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them," New York Times, December 10, 2006)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Harmon 2006)


Print Newspaper Article

Chicago Manual 15.49, 14,191 (NB), and 14.198 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Month Day, and Year of Publication, Section, Edition.

Vogel, Carol. 2007. "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty." New York Times, June 11, 2007, Arts section, East Coast edition.

Note: In a Reference List entry, it may be useful to add "Final edition," "Midwest edition," or some such identifier. If the paper is is published in several sections, the section number (e.g., sec. 1) or title (e.g., Nation) may be given. However, in an in-text citation, no edition information is needed.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Vogel 2007, "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty," New York Times, June 11, 2007, E1)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Vogel 2007, E1)


Newspaper Article with an Unknown Author

Chicago Manual 15.49, 14.191 (NB), and 14.198-14.199. (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Title of Newspaper. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Month Day, Year of Publication.

Hartford Courant. 2006. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record." November 26, 2006.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

("Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record," 2006, Hartford Courant, November 26, 2006)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Hartford Courant 2006)


Letter to the Editor

Chicago Manual 14.196 (NB) and 14.198 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First name. Year of Publication. Letter to the editor. Title of Newspaper, Month Day, and Year of Publication.

Ashram, Jane. 2006. Letter to the editor. Boston Globe, November 9, 2006.

Note: Published letters to the editor are treated generically, without headlines.

Note: Newspapers are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Ashram 2006, letter to the editor, Boston Globe, November 9, 2006, A16)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Ashram 2006, A16)

Website, Blog, or Social Media

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Website

Chicago Manual 15.50 and 14.207 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author of the Site. Year of Publication. "Title of Web Page." Owner/Sponsor of Site. Published, Modified, or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

Watson, Ivan. 2011. "Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring." CNN.com. Last modified October 23, 2011. http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/23/world/africa/tunisia-elections/index.html.

Note: Websites are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Watson 2011, "Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring," CNN.com, last modified October 23, 2011)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Watson 2011)


Website, no author

Chicago Manual 15.50 and 14.207 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Owner/Sponsor of Site. Year of Publication or n.d. (if no date is available). "Title of Web Page." Published, Modified, or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

9 News. n.d. "Victorian Smoking Rates Hit Record Low." Accessed August 17, 2012. https://www.9news.com.au/technology/2012/10/09/17/08/victorian-smoking-rates-hit-record-low.

Note: Cite the web page in the Reference List by the owner or sponsor of the site. If there is no publication date or last modified date, use the date when you accessed the web page.

Note: Websites are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

("Victorian Smoking Rates Hit Record Low," n.d., 9 News, accessed August 17, 2012)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(9 News, n.d.)


Blog Posting

Chicago Manual 15.51 and 14.208 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

In text:

In his blog posting dated September 16, 2010, in Ward Six, J. Robert Lennon discusses...

In a Reference List:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Entry." Title of Blog (blog), Month Day, and Year of Entry. URL.

Lennon, J. Robert. 2010. "How Do You Revise?." Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010. http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

If citing an entire blog:

AHA Today (blog). http://blog.historians.org/education/919/inuit-contact-an-arctic-culture-teaching-resource.

Note: Should a Reference List entry be necessary, it should be listed under the name of the author.

Note: Blogs are often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Lennon 2010, "How Do You Revise?," Ward Six (Blog), September 16, 2010)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Lennon 2010)

 


Social Media

Chicago Manual 15.52 and 14.209 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

In text:

Conan O'Brien's tweet was characteristically deadpan: "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets" (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

In a Reference List:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name (Handle/Username if available). Year of Publication. "Title of Posting." Social Media Type, Month Day, Year, Time of Posting. URL.

O'Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). 2015. "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets." Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. "President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit." Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

Diaz, Junot. 2016. "Always surprises my students when I tell them that the 'real' medieval was more diverse than the fake ones most of us consume." Facebook, February 24, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/junotdiaz.writer/posts/972495572815454.

Note: Because social media is subject to editing and deletion, retaining a copy of anything cited is suggested.

Note: Social media is often cited only within the text of the paper. A corresponding Reference List entry is not needed as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation. However, a frequently cited account or an extensive thread related to a single subject or post may be included in the Reference List.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien) 2015, "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(O'Brien 2015)

E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


E-mail

Chicago Manual 15.53 and 14.214 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

In text:

In her e-mail to the author on December 6, 2006, Barbara Smith described...

Note: Email is usually cited only within the text of the paper.

(Barbara Smith, 2006, e-mail message to author, December 6, 2006)


Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)

Chicago Manual 15.53 and 14.210 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Message Author's Last Name, Message Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Subject or Thread." Title of List or Forum (followed by List or Forum if not part of the title), the Title of any Host Site, the Date of the Message or Post. URL.

Abungu, Lorna. 2007. "Valuing ethnographic objects." ICME Electronic Mailing List, April 13, 2007. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/icme/message/155.

Note: Electronic mailing list messages are usually cited only within the text of the paper.

If No Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Abungu, 2007, "Valuing ethnographic objects," ICME Electronic Mailing List, April 13, 2007)

If A Reference List Entry Is Used:

(Abungu 2007)


Personal Communication

Chicago Manual 15.53 and 14.214 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

In text:

In a telephone conversation between Sarah Jones and the author on June 22, 2006...

Note: Personal communications such as face to face conversation, telephone conversation, text messages, etc. are usually cited only within the text of the paper.

(Sarah Jones, telephone conversation, June 22, 2006)

Audio/Video

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Online Video

Chicago Manual 15.57 and 14.267 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of work. Title of Film. Name of Publisher, Format of Film. From Source, Collection Name. Medium, Duration of film. URL.

Edison, Thomas A. 1898. Sleighing Scene. Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 35mm film. From Library of Congress, America at Work, America at Leisure: MotionPictures from 1894-1915. RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time video, 47 sec. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/lcmp002.m2a38968.

"Football Medley and Bright College Years ~Fenno Heath Yale Glee Club 1990." 1990. Video, 8:32. From the performance at the 1990 Commencement Concert, posted by "Peggy Heath Ogilvy," February 22, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=yale+glee+club+1990.

 

(Edison 1898)

("Football Medley" 1990)


Podcasts

Chicago Manual 15.57 and 14.267 (NB)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Work. "Title of Podcast." Date of Podcast. In Podcast Series, Producer. Podcast. Format, Time. URL.

Danforth, Mike, and Ian Chillag. 2015. "F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points." April 21, 2015. In How to Do Everything, produced by Gillian Donovan. Podcast. MP3 audio, 18:46. http://www.podcasts.com/npr_how_to_do_everything_podcast/episode/f-bombs-chicken-and-exclamation-points.

Note: If the source has no date, use the date of last access.

(Danforth and Chillag 2015)


Motion Picture

Chicago Manual 15.57 and 14.265 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Director's Last Name, Director's First Name, dir. Original Release Date. Title of Movie. Location of Distributor: Name of Distributor, Item Release Date. Medium.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. 1954. Rear Window. Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures, 2001. DVD.

"Crop Duster Attack." 1959. North by Northwest. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000. DVD.

 

(Hitchcock 1954)


Sound Recording

Chicago Manual 15.57 and 14.263 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Name of Composer, Conductor, or Performer (depends on who you emphasize in your paper). Recording Date. Title of Recording. Name of Composer, Conductor, and/or Performer (if they are not listed at the beginning of the Reference List entry). Name of Recording Company Music Number, Copyright Date, medium.

Dylan, Bob. 1968. All Along the Watchtower. Jimi Hendrix. MCA MCAD-10895, 1993, compact disc.

(Dylan 1968)


Television Episode

Chicago Manual 15.3 and 14.265 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Director's Last Name, Director's First Name, dir. Year of Airing. Title of Series. Season Number, Episode Number, "Title of Episode." Original Air Date, Network. URL

Mayberry, Russ, dir. 1971. The Brady Bunch. Season 3, episode 10, "Her Sister's Shadow." Aired November 19, 1971, on ABC. https://www.hulu.com/the-brady-bunch.

(Mayberry 1971)


Television Series

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite a Television Series, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Title of Series. Original Air Dates. Creator(s) of Series. Producer(s) of Series. Network.

The West Wing. 1999-2006. Created by Aaron Sorkin. Produced by Aaron Sorkin, Thomas Schlamme, John Wells, Alex Graves, and Christopher Misiano. NBC.

(The West Wing)

Image or Advertisement

Choose a source type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Online Images

Chicago Manual 15.3, 14.235 (NB), and 8.198 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Work. Title of Work. Medium, Date of Work. Title of Source, Location, Date of Publication. URL. 

McCurry, Steve. 1984.  Afghan Girl. Photograph, December 1984. National Geographic, cover, June 1985. http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/5k25q7.

Note: Titles of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and photographs are italicized. Titles of antiquities are set in roman.

(McCurry 1984)


Work of Art

Chicago Manual 15.3, 14.235 (NB), and 8.198 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. Date. Title of Work. Medium. Museum Name, Museum Location.

Hopper, Edward. 1929. Railroad Sunset. Oil on canvas. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. http://collection.whitney.org/object/5874.

Note: Information about works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than a Reference List entry.

Note: Titles of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and photographs are italicized. Titles of antiquities are set in roman.

(Hopper 1929)


Advertisement

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Advertisements, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Product, Company, or Institution Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Advertisement" (if applicable). Advertisement. Name of Publication, Date of Publication, Page Number (for print) or URL (for electronic).

Banana Republic. 2006. Advertisement. InStyle, October 2006, 51.

Note: Advertisements are not typically included in the Reference List, just in the in-text citations. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

(Banana Republic 2006, 51)

Secondary Sources

Chicago Manual 15.56

A secondary source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. An example would be Sontag's On Photography cited in Zelizer's book Remembering to Forget. Use the format below only if you are unable to examine the original source material (e.g. Sontag's On Photography). The Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources.

Reference List Format:

In-text Citations:

Reference List Format:

Give the citation for your secondary source. Use the appropriate citation format for your source, e.g. book or article.

Reference List Example:

Zelizer, Barbie. 2003. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

In Susan Sontag's 1977 book On Photography (quoted in Zelizer 2003, 11)...

Note: Cite the original source in the running text of your paper. Cite the secondary source in parenthesis with "quoted in."

In-Text Citation Examples

Choose a source type

 

Basic Form

Chicago Manual 15.21-15.23

In-text Citation Format:

(Author's Last Name Publication Date, Page Number (if needed)

In-text Citation Examples:

(Zelizer 2003, 11) (Chavez 2006)


Placement of In-text Citations

Chicago Manual 15.25-15.26 and 13.68-13.72

An in-text citation is usually placed before any punctuation, except for in the case of a block quote; then the citation is placed after the punctuation mark. The period is not needed after the closing parenthesis.

Example:

Block Quote:

The purpose of an ethical code is to delineate, for the members of the profession and for the public at large, the issues of greatest concern and the areas of potential conflict between individual action and the purposes of the group, and to guarantee that the special expertise of the group will be used for the good of society. (Benedict 1988, 176)

For run-in quotations, the in-text citation is placed after the closing quotation mark. If a quotation ends with a question or exclamation point, then the punctuation is retained inside the quotation mark, and a period is added after the citation.

Examples:

Run-in Quote:

"No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue" (Zelizer 2003, 3).

Quotation Ending with a Question Mark:

"Do we do a disservice to our colleagues and to our profession by placing so little emphasis upon understanding ethics, with the concomitant inability to judge our actions upon firm ethical principles?" (Benedict 1988, 175).

If an author's name appears in the text, then it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Examples:

Henry (2006) uses triangulation to study the United Kingdom's Buddhist population. Mock and Parker (1997) subscribe to the theory that siblings ...


Multiple References

Chicago Manual 15.30

Separate each citation with a semicolon. Example: (Mock and Parker 1997; Bukatko and Daehler 2004; Dacso et al. 1995)

Bible

Chicago 14.238-14.241 (NB)

Reference List Format:

In-text Citation:

Title. Year of Publication. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher.

The Bible. 1998. Authorized King James version. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Note: Books of the Bible can be abbreviated, for example, Lev., Num. The Reference List format is not required, but may be used to reference a particular version.

(John 3:2-5)

 

Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper: 
Online Resources

Print Resources

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