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APA

Table of Contents

APA Citations

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Ref. BF 76.7 .P83 2010

For supplemental material, please visit www.apastyle.org or view the library ebook on electronic references.

Commonly Cited Sources in APA:
  • APA Citation Checklist ... avoid the common mistakes!
  • Except for personal communications, each source cited in paper must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the paper.
  • Page numbers are only required in citations for direct quotes.
  • Need more help? Try Asking a Librarian and other resources.

Book

Choose a book type

 

More in-text Citation Information


Book with One Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Bigelow, B. (2006). The line between us: Teaching about the border and Mexican immigration. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.

(Bigelow, 2006)

Or

Bigelow (2006) discusses the Mexican immigrant experience ...


Book with Two Authors

Note: Rules for multiple authors apply to all references in your list, regardless of the format of work (e. g. book, journal or magazine article, audio/video, etc.)

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Mock, D.W. & Parker, G.A. (1997). The evolution of sibling rivalry. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

(Mock & Parker, 1997)

Or

Mock and Parker (1997) discuss the origins of family structure ...


Book with Three to Five Authors

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A ., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Garner, J. F., Smith, H. L., & Piland, N. F. (1990). Strategic nursing management: Power and responsibility in a new era. Rockville, MD: Aspen.

For the first in-text citation, cite all of the authors.

(Garner, Smith, & Piland, 1990)

Or:

Garner, Smith, and Piland (1990) discuss the origins of ...

For subsequent in-text citations, cite the first author followed by et al.

(Garner et al., 1990)

Or:

Garner et al. (1990)


Book with Six to Seven Authors

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F.,  & Last Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year of  Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Avis, J. M., Ball, D., Bischof, G., Burg, J. E., Chang, Y. H., Gonzalez-Doupe, P., & Wilkie, S. G. (1996). Family therapy sourcebook. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

 

(Avis et al., 1996)

Or:

Avis et al. (1996) discuss the . . .


Book with Eight or More Authors

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Last Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year of  Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Adams, T. J., Boynton, .S., Charlesworth, G., Davis, M. L., Eagleton, T. F., Fernandez, A., . . . Sawyer, S. C. (2012). From output to outcomes: Measuring what matters. Chicago, IL: Taunton Press.

 

(Adams et al., 2012)

Or:

Adams et al. (2012) discuss the . . .


Book with Organization as Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citations:

Name of Organization. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

American Psychiatric Association. (1998). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with panic disorder. Washington, DC: Author.

Note: When the publisher is the same as the author, use the word Author for the name of the publisher.

For the first in-text citation use:

(American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1998)

Or:

American Psychiatric Association (APA, 1998)

For subsequent citations use:

(APA, 1998)

Or:

APA (1998) Note: For universities as authors do not abbreviate the name.


Chapter of a Book

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of Chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. chapter page numbers). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Kozminski, A. K. (1994). High-speed management and global competition. In S. S. King & D. P. Cushman (Eds.), High-speed management and organizational communications in the 1990s: A reader (pp. 41-67).  Albany: State University of New York Press.

Note: APA states if publisher is a university and the name of the state or province is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the name in the publisher location.

Note: Page is abbreviated, but Chapter is not abbreviated and it is capitalized.

(Kozminski, 1994, Chapter 3)

Or:

(Kozminski, 1994, p. 62)


Edited Book

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Madan, T. N. (Ed.). (1991). Religion in India. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.

Note: For more than one editor, use (Eds.)

(Madan, 1991)

Or:

Madan (1991)


No Author or Editor

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of book (edition number ed.). (Year of Publication). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

The American heritage dictionary of the English language (4th ed.). (2000). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Note: Within the reference list, alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title (American in this case).

For the in-text citation, use a few words of the title in place of the author's name.

(American Heritage Dictionary, 2000)

Or:

American Heritage Dictionary (2000)


Edition other than First

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book (edition number ed.). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Bukatko, D. & Daehler, M. W. (2004). Child development: A thematic approach (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

(Bukatko & Daehler, 2004)

Or:

Bukatko and Daehler (2004)


Translated Book

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication for English Translation). Title of book (Name of Translator, Trans.). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher. (Original work published [Date of Original Publication]).

Freud, S. (1999). The interpretation of dreams (J. Crick, Trans.). New York, NY: Oxford. (Original work published 1899).

(Freud, 1899/1999)

Or:

Freud (1899/1999)


Multivolume Work

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year(s) of Publication). Title of book (Vols. X-X). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Cook, B.W. (1992-1999). Eleanor Roosevelt (Vols. 1-12). New York, NY: Viking.

(Cook, 1992-1999)

Or:

Cook (1992-1999)


Encyclopedia Entry

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of encyclopedia article. In Title of encyclopedia (Vol. Volume Number, pp. page numbers). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Mayes, A. R. & Hunkin, M. M. (2003). Amnesia. In Encyclopedia of cognitive science (Vol. 1, pp. 90-97). London, England: Nature Publishing Group.

(Mayes & Hunkin, 2003)

Or:

Mayes and Hunkin (2003)

 

Ebook

Choose the Ebook type

More in-text Citation Information


Ebook (Chapter)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. chapter page numbers). Retrieved from [database  name or URL].

Dray, A. (1999). Vanilloids as analgesics. In J. Sawynok & A. Cowan (Eds.), Novel aspects of pain management: Opioids and beyond (pp. 117-134). Retrieved from NetLibrary database.

Note: When a URL directs a person to a point of purchase for an ebook rather than the ebook itself, use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from."

(Dray, 1999)

Or:

Dray (1999)


Ebook (Entire Book)

Reference List Format: In-text 
Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Retrieved from [database name or URL].

Martin, R. (2001). Beethoven's hair: An extraordinary historical odyssey and a scientific mystery solved. Retrieved from Ebrary database.

Note: When a URL directs a person to a point of purchase for an ebook rather than the ebook itself, use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from."

(Martin, 2001)

Or:

Martin (2001)

 

Journal Article

Choose the Journal type

More in-text Citation Information


Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.


Online Journal Article

In June 2007, the APA made changes to how electronic sources were documented. If an article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), use the DOI in place of a URL or electronic database name. The retrieval date is no longer needed. Since a DOI string can be very long, copy and paste it into your paper to ensure accuracy. Not sure what a DOI is or how to find it?

Article with a DOI* Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue number), print page numbers. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Cowan, R. L. (2012). It’s complicated: Defining workplace bullying from the human resource professional’s perspective. Management Communication Quarterly26(3), 377-403. doi:10.1177/0893318912439474

(Cowan, 2012)

Or:

Cowan (2012)


Article without a DOI* Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue number), print page numbers. Retrieved from [URL]

Salama, A. M. (2008). A theory for integrating knowledge in architectural design education. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 2(1), 100-128. Retrieved from http://archnet.org/gws/IJAR/8821/files_8181/2.1.07%20-a.%20salama- pp100-128.pdf

Note on Article URL:

  • Accessible for free: give the exact URL, as in the example above.
  • Accessible by subscription only: give the URL of the journal's home page.
  • From an electronic database: give the URL from the database's home/menu page

(Salama, 2008)

Or:

Salama (2008)

*You do not need to put the issue number if the journal is is paginated by volume. Journals paginated by volume use continuous pagination from issue to issue. For example issue one starts with page one and goes to page 252. Issue two starts with page 253 and goes to page 506. For journals paginated by volume, do not include the issue number in the reference list entry.


 Print Article from Journal Paginated by Volume*

Journals paginated by volume use continuous pagination from issue to issue. For example issue one starts with page one and goes to page 252. Issue two starts with page 253 and goes to page 506. For journals paginated by volume, do not include the issue number in the reference list entry.

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume, print page numbers.

Zhao, Z. (2006). Income inequality, unequal health care access, and mortality in China. Population and Development Review, 32, 401-446.
 

(Zhao, 2006)

Or:

Zhao (2006)

*If you see a DOI printed on the article, include it at the end of your citation in this format. If you do not see a DOI, search for the article at CrossRef.org for the DOI. If you are unable to find a DOI, use the above format.


 Print Article from Journal Paginated by Issue*

Journals paginated by issue start with page one for every issue. For these journals, include the issue number in the reference list entry.

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue number), print page numbers.

Greenberg, A. (2001). Race, religiosity, and the women's vote. Women & Politics, 22(3), 59-82.

(Greenberg, 2001)

Or:

Greenberg (2001)

*If you see a DOI printed on the article, include it at the end of your citation in this format. If you do not see a DOI, search for the article at CrossRef.org for the DOI. If you are unable to find a DOI, use the above format.


Review

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author of the Review. (Date of Publication). Title of article [Review of Title of book being reviewed,  by A.A. Author]. Journal Title, volume, page numbers.

Ellis, N. (2006). London chiming [Review of the book Postcolonial London: Rewriting the metropolis, by J. McLeod]. Postcolonial Studies, 9, 337-342.

Note: If citing a review of another medium, such as a motion picture, use Review of motion picture in brackets. Example: [Review of the motion picture To catch a thief]

(Ellis, 2006)

Or:

Ellis (2006)

 

Magazine Article

Choose the Magazine type

More in-text Citation Information


Magazine Article from Library Database

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume (issue if available), page numbers. Retrieved from [URL from database's home or menu page]

Stengel, R. (2012, April 30). A world of possibilities. Time, 179(17), 1. Retrieved from http://proquest.com

(Stengel, 2012)

Or:

Stengel (2012)


Magazine Article from Online Website

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume, page numbers. Retrieved from [URL from website's home or menu page]

Barclay, A. (2013, March). Using social media to enhance public education on water usage. Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine, 26(2), 13. Retrieved from http://www.esemag.com

Note: Provide issue numbers if each issue of the magazine begins with page 1; otherwise, provide only the volume number.

(Barclay, 2013)

Or:

Barclay (2013)


Print Magazine Article

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Magazine Title, volume, page numbers.

Ravilious, K. (2006, November/December). Scots on the rocks: Mountaineering archaeologists reach new heights of discovery. Archaeology, 27, 16-21.  

(Ravilious, 2006)

Or:

Ravilious (2006)

 

Newspaper Article

Choose the Newspaper type

More in-text Citation Information


Newspaper Article from Library Database

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page number(s) preceded by p. or pp. Retrieved from [URL from database's home or menu page]

Harmon, A. (2006, December 10). DNA gatherers hit a snag: The tribes don't trust them. New York Times, p. 1.1. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?RQT=306&TS=1215038940&clientId=48293

Note on DOI: At this time newspaper articles rarely have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assigned to them. If your newspaper article does have a DOI, follow the reference list format below. Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page number(s) preceded by p. or pp. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxx

Not sure what a DOI is or how to find it?

(Harmon, 2006)

Or:

Harmon (2006)


Article from Newspaper Website

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from [homepage URL]

Urbina, I. (2008, June 10). Coal country looks to natural gas. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

(Urbina, 2008)

Or:

Urbina (2008)


Print Newspaper Article

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page number(s) preceded by p. or pp.

Donnelly, J. (2006, November 9). SARS authority picked to lead health group. Boston Globe, p. A14.

(Donnelly, 2006)

Or:

Donnelly (2006)


Newspaper Article with Unknown Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of article. (Full Date of Publication). Newspaper Title, page number(s) preceded by p. or pp.

Number of out-of-wedlock births a record. (2006, November 26). Hartford Courant, p. A7.

Notes:

  • For an online newspaper article or article from a database, use the format provided here, but replace the page number with "Retrieved from [homepage/database URL].
  • Within the reference list, alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title.

("Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births", 2006)

Note: For the in-text citation, use a few words of the title in place of the author's name. Include double quotation marks around the title of the article.


Letter to the Editor

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Full Date of Publication). Title of article [Letter to the editor]. Newspaper Title, page number.

Arsham, J. (2006, November 9). At last she has reason to wave a flag [Letter to the editor]. Boston Globe, p. A16.

(Arsham, 2006)

Or:

Arsham (2006)

 

Website or Blog

Choose the Source type

More in-text Citation Information


For additional information see APA Style Blog entry on How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style.

Note: When citing an entire website or page, and not any document in particular on that website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in the text (no reference list entry is needed), as follows:

KidsPsych is a wonderful interactive website for children (http://www.kidspsych.org)

Website

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting/Revision). Title of website. Retrieved from [URL]

The White House, United States Government. (2006). Comprehensive immigration reform. Retrieved  from http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/immigration/

Notes:

  • The author for a website may be a person's name, or a company or institution.
  • When the Date of Posting/Revision is not available, use (n.d.).

(The White House, United States Government, 2006)

Or:

The White House (2006)


Website, No Author

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of website. (Date of Posting/Revision). Retrieved from [URL]

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

Note:

  • When the Date of Posting/Revision is not available, use (n.d.).
("New Child Vaccine", 2001)

Blog Posting

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from [URL]

Simon, N. (2010, February 9). How different types of museums approach participation [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://museumtwo.blogspot.com  

(Simon, 2010)


Blog Comment

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting). Re: Title of blog post [Blog comment]. Retrieved from [URL]

hds (2010, February 9). Re: How different types of museums approach participation [Blog comment]. Retrieved from http://museumtwo.blogspot.com

Note: If the author of the comment has used a screen name, then use the screen name in your reference.

(hds, 2010)

Twitter Posting

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. [Social media identity]. (Year, Day of Posting). Content of  post up to first 40 words. [Tweet]. Retrieved from [URL]

Obama, B. [BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

Note: If writing for publication may want to self-archive any social media updates

(Obama, 2009)  

See APA Style Blog for other types of social media.

E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication

Choose the source type

More in-text Citation Information


‚ÄčE-mail

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Note:

E-mails (like other personal communication) are not included in the reference list; however, cite the e-mail in the text and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a specific date.

(C.A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)

Or:

As C.A. Roberts said in his e-mail ... (personal communication, December 6, 2006)


Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting). Subject line of message [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from [URL]

Abungu, L. (2007, April 13). Valuing ethnographic objects [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://groups.yahoo.com/group/icme/message/155  

(Abungu, 2007)

Or:

Abungu (2007)


Personal Communication

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Note:

Personal communication (such as letters, memos, e-mails, personal interviews and telephone conversations) are not included in the reference list. Cite the personal communication in the text, and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a date as specific as possible.

(C.A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)

Or:

As C.A. Roberts wrote in a letter... (personal communication, December 6, 2006)

 

Lecture Notes

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Note:

Personal communication (such as letters, memos, e-mails, personal interviews and telephone conversations) are not included in the reference list. Cite the personal communication in the text, and include the author's initials in addition to the author's last name and provide a date as specific as possible.

(C.A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)


Speech

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Worden, M. (1996). Personality and terrorism, how are they linked?.

(Worden, 1996)

 

Audio/Video

Choose the source type

More in-text Citation Information


Online Video (unknown producer*)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Title of Video [Video file]. (Date of Posting). Retrieved from [URL]

Fairfield University students at NASA [Video file]. (2007, June 20). Retrieved from http://youtube.com/watch?v=tgq1FYuWd1c

Note: Provide the producer or primary contributor only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the producer. If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no producer.

(Fairfield University Students at NASA, 2007)


Online Video (known producer*)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Producer (Producer). (Date of Posting). Title of Video [Video file]. Retrieved from [URL]

Stag TV of Fairfield University (Producer). (2007, October 31). News64 - Feature on Craig Romney [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube.com/watch?v=kiUVGeTIw8g

Note:
Provide the producer or primary contributor only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the producer. If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no producer.

(Stag TV of Fairfield University, 2007)

Motion Picture

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Originator or Primary Contributor (Function of Originator or Primary Contributor). (Copyright date). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Motion Picture's Country of Origin: Name of Movie Studio.

Hitchcock, A. (Director/Producer). (1954). Rear window [Motion picture]. U.S.: Paramount Pictures.

(Hitchcock, 1954)

Or:

Hitchcock (1954)


Television Series

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Producer of Television Series (Producer). (Date). Title of television series. [Television series]. Place of Origin: Studio Name.

Weiner, M. (Producer) and Weiner, H. (Producer). (1999). Journey to planet Earth. [Television series]. Washington, DC: Screenscope.

(M. Weiner & H. Weiner, 1999)

Or:

M. Weiner & H. Weiner (1999)


Single Episode of Television Series

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Name of Scriptwriter (Writer), & Name of Director (Director). (Date). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Name of Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of television series. Place of Origin: Studio Name.

Weiner, H. (Writer/Director). (1999). Land of plenty, land of want [Television series episode]. In H. Weiner & M. Weiner (Executive Producers) Journey to planet Earth. Washington, DC: Screenscope.

(Weiner, 1999)

Or:

Weiner (1999)


Music Recording: Individual Tracks

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Writer, A. A. (Copyright Date). Title of song [Recorded by Name of Recording  Artist if different from writer]. On Album title [Recording  medium]. Location: Recording Company. (Recording date if different from copyright date).

Dylan, B. (1993). All along the watchtower [Recorded by J. Hendrix]. On Electric  ladyland [CD]. Universal City, CA: MCA. (1968).

Note: For recording medium, use CD, record, cassette etc.

(Dylan, 1993, track 15)

Note: For the in-text citation, include the band or track number.

 

Image or Advertisement

Choose the source type

More in-text Citation Information


Online Image or Figure

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Author, A. A. (Date of Posting/Revision). Title of image or figure. Retrieved  from [URL]

Newman, M. E. J. (n.d.) Maps of the 2008 US presidential election. Retrieved from http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/

  Notes:

  • If no author is available use the following format:
    • Title of Image or Figure. (Date of Posting/Revision). Retrieved from [URL]
  • If no date is available, use (n.d.).

Citations for an image or map, chart, graph or table normally appears as a credit below the item rather than as an in-text citation.


Advertisement (online)

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

Advertisement title. (Date of Posting). [Advertisement type]. Retrieved from [URL]

Tab cola. Be a mindsticker. (1960). [Television advertisement]. Retrieved from http://www.dailymotion.com/video/z2sqi_1960s-tab-commercial-be- a-mindstick_ads

(Tab cola, 1960)
 

Secondary Sources

APA advises to "use secondary sources sparingly, for instance, when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English."

Reference List Format: In-text Citation:

List the secondary source in the reference list:

Zelizer, B. (1998). Remembering to forget : Holocaust memory through the camera's eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Name the original work in your text and but cite the secondary source:

In Susan Sontag's 1977 book On Photography ... (as cited in Zelizer, 1998, p. 11)

 

In-Text Citation Examples

Choose the source type


One Author (Books and Articles)

The below formats are used for the authors of both books and articles:

In-text Citation Example:

In a recent book about border patrols ... (Bigelow, 2006).

Or

Bigelow (2006) discusses the Mexican immigrant experience.


Two Authors (Books and Articles)

The below formats are used for the authors of both books and articles. Always cite both names every time you cite the work:

In-text Citation Example:

(Mock & Parker, 1997)

Or

Mock and Parker (1997) discuss the origins of family structure ...


Three to Six Authors (Books and Articles)

The below formats are used for the authors of both books and articles:

In-text Citation Examples:

For the first in-text citation, cite all of the authors. (Garner, Smith, & Piland, 1990)

Or:

Garner, Smith, and Piland (1990) discuss the origins of ...

For subsequent in-text citations, cite the first author followed by et al.

(Garner et al., 1990)

Or:

Garner et al. (1990) discuss the origins of ...


Six or More Authors (Books and Articles)

The below format is used for the authors of both books and articles:

Use this format for the first in-text citation and subsequent citations.

In-text Citation Examples:

(Dacso et al., 1995)

Or:

Dacso et al. (1995)


No Author

The below format is used for the authors of both books and articles:

For the in-text citation, use a few words of the title in place of the author's name. Italicize a book title and use double quotation marks around the title of an article or book chapter.

In-text Citation Examples:

(American Heritage Dictionary, 2000)

Or:

American Heritage Dictionary (2000)

Or:

("Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births," 2006)


No Date

The below format is used for the authors of both books and articles:

Use n.d. in the place of the date.

In-text Citation Example:

(Roberts, n.d.)


Personal Communication

In addition to the author's last name, include the author's initials. Provide a date that is as specific as possible.

In-text Citation Example:

(C. A. Roberts, personal communication, December 6, 2006)

Or:

C. A. Roberts (personal communication, December 6, 2006)


Multiple Works in the Same Parenthesis

When citing two or more works by different authors within the same parenthesis, list the authors alphabetically and separate each citation with a semicolon.

In-text Citation Example:

(Landau, 1989; Leja, 1993; Varnedoe, 1999)


Specific Part of a Print Source (Including Exact Quotes)

In-text citation examples:

(Walker, 1991, Figure 2)

(Zelizer, 2003, Chapter 1)

"No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue" (Zelizer, 2003, p. 3).

Note: When quoting from a source, always give page numbers.


Specific Part of an Electronic Source (Including Exact Quotes)

If an electronic source does not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number if given.

In-text Citation Examples:

(Smith, para. 2)

If there are no page or paragraph numbers available, cite the section heading and count the paragraph number in which the citation falls.

In-text Citation Example:

"A key aspect of global Buddhism has been the exponential increase in the movement of Buddhism in the last five decades of the twentieth century, from Asia to Western nations" (Henry, 2006, Global Buddhism section, para. 2).


The Bible and Other Classical Works

An entry in the reference list is not required for the Bible and other major classical works, such as Greek and Roman works (e.g. The Iliad). For the first in-text citation, identify the version of text you used.

In-text Citation Example:

Instead of page numbers, use the classical work's numbering system (books, chapters, verses, lines, cantos).

John 3:16 (King James Version)

Or:

(John 3:16 King James Version)

For subsequent in-text citations, you no longer need to identify the version used.

(John 3:16)


Translated Work

Include the original publication date and the date of the translation.

In-text Citation Example:

(Freud, 1899/1999)

For some ancient works, the original publication date is not applicable. Instead use the translation year.

(Plato, trans. 2004)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI, and how do I find it? A DOI is an alpha-numeric code that provides a persistent link to an article location on the Internet. With an HTML full-text article, the DOI is often found in the online citation of the article. With a PDF article, the DOI is often found on the beginning page of the article. Not all articles have a DOI. 

Online Journal Article | Newspaper Article from Library Database

Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper: Online Resources
 
Print Resources
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 th ed. (Ref. BF 76.7.P83 2010)
  • Concise Rules of APA Style (Ref. BF 76.7.C66 2010)
 
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